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Sunday, April 27, 2014

Muhammad bin al-Husayn bin Moosa Abu Abdur Rahmaan as-Sulami

Name:

محمد بن الحسين بن محمد بن موسى أبو عبد الرحمن السلمي الصوفي النيسابوري

Muhammad bin al-Husayn bin Muhammad bin Moosa, Abu Abdur Rahmaan as-Sulami as-Soofi al-Neesaaboori

Tabaqah: 16

Birth: Abdul Ghaafir said in his Taareekh that he was born in Ramadaan 330 AH. Al-Haakim said in his Taareekh, “It is said that he was born in 325 AH.”

[Taareekh Al-Islaam (9/208)]

Death: He died in Sha’baan 412 AH in Neesaaboor.

[Taareekh Baghdaad (3/42)]

Age: 82 or 87.

Teachers: He was the leader and scholar of Soofiyah in Khurasaan and heard from: Abu al-Abbaas al-Asam, Ahmed bin Ali al-Hasnuwayh al-Muqri, Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Abdoos, Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Sa’eed ar-Raazi, Abu Zuhayr Abdullah bin Faaris al-Umri al-Balkhee, Muhammad bin al-Mu’ammal al-Maasarjisi, Al-Haafidh Abu Ali al-Husayn bin Muhammad al-Neesaaboori (the author of al-Mustadrak), Sa’eed bin al-Qaasim al-Barza’ee, Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Rumayh an-Nasawi, and his grandfather Abu Amr Ismaa’eel bin Nujayd bin Ahmed bin Yoosuf as-Sulami al-Neesaaboori and others.

[Taareekh al-Islaam (9/208)]

Students: Al-Haakim, Abu al-Qaasim al-Qushayree, Abu Bakr al-Bayhaqi, Abu Sa’eed bin Raamish, Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Yahya al-Muzakki, Abu Saalih al-Mu’adhdhin, Muhammad bin Ismaa’eel al-Tafleesi, Abu Bakr bin Khalf, Ali bin Ahmed al-Madeeni, Al-Qaasim bin al-Fadl ath-Thaqafi and numerous other narrators.

Status: Weak, Accused of Fabrication

Opinions of Ahl ul-Jarh wat Ta’deel:

Those who criticized him:

1-    Haafidh Muhammad bin Yoosuf al-Neesaaboori al-Qattaan (D. 422) said:

كان أبو عبد الرحمن السلمي غير ثقة، ولم يكن سمع من الأصم إلا شيئا يسيرا، فلما مات الحاكم أبو عبد الله بن البيع حدث عن الأصم بتاريخ يحيى بن معين وبأشياء كثيرة سواه، قَالَ: وكان يضع للصوفية الأحاديث
“As-Sulami was not Thiqah and he did not hear from Al-Asam but only a little. Later when Al-Haakim Abu Abdullah bin al-Bay’ died, he started narrating the Taareekh of Yahya bin Ma’een from Al-Asam along with many other similar things. And He used to fabricate narrations for the Soofiyah”
[ Taareekh Baghdaad (3/42)]

Note: Al-Asam had died long before Haakim, so when Haakim died, he started narrating from Al-Asam, which clearly means, he was lying on Al-Asam. This is a Jarh Mufassar which will only be overridden by a Ta’deel Mufassar.

2-    Imaam Shams ud-Deen adh-Dhahabi (D. 748) said:

شيخ الصوفية وصاحب تاريخهم وطبقاتهم وتفسيرهم
تكلموا فيه وليس بعمدة
“He is the Shaykh of Soofiyah and the author of their Taareekh, their Tabaqaat, and their Tafseer. Muhadditheen have spoken about him and he is not excellent.”
[ Meezaan al-I’tidaal (3/523)]

In another place, he said:

وَمَا هُوَ بِالقَوِيِّ فِي الحَدِيْثِ
“And he is not that strong in Hadeeth”
[Siyar A’laam al-Nabula (17/250)]

In another place, he said:

ففي تصانيفه أحاديث وحكايات موضوعة وفي حقائق تفسيره أشياء لا تسوغ أصلا، عدها بعض الأئمة من زندقة الباطنية وعدها بعضهم عرفانا وحقيقة نعوذ بالله من الضلال ومن الكلام بهوى فإن الخير كل الخير في متابعة السنة والتمسك بهدي الصحابة والتابعين رضي الله عنهم
“In his books are narrations and stories which are fabricated, and in Haqaaiq al-Tafseer (his book), there are things which have no basis, some of the A’immah have counted it to be an inward heresy, while some considered it knowledge and reality; we seek Allaah’s refuge from the misguided and from the speech of whims; for indeed the absolute goodness is in obeying the Sunnah and sticking to the guidance of Sahaabah and Taabi’een, may Allaah be pleased with them.”
[Siyar A’laam al-Nabula (17/252)]

Imaam Dhahabi also mentioned him in Ad-Du’afa and mentioned the saying of Muhammad bin Yoosuf al-Qattaan [Deewaan ad-Du’afa (1/347)]

And in al-Mughni fi ad-Du’afa, he said:

صاحب المصنفات تكلم فيه وما هو بالحجة وقال الخطيب قال لي محمد بن يوسف القطان كان يضع الأحاديث للصوفية قلت وله في حقائق التفسير تحريف كثير
“He is the author of many books. He has been criticized, and he is not Hujjah. Al-Khateeb said that Muhammad bin Yoosuf al-Qattaan said to me that he fabricated ahaadeeth for the Soofiyah. I say that he has done a lot alteration (of texts) in Haqaaiq al-Tafseer”
[Al-Mughni (2/571)]

3-    Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (D. 652) said while commenting one a fabricated hadeeth on Ja’far as-Saadiq:

حتى نقل عنه أبو عبد الرحمن في 'حقائق التفسير' من الأكاذيب ما نزه الله جعفرا عنه
“Abu Abdur Rahmaan has narrated from him (i.e. Ja’far as-Saadiq) in Haqaaiq al-Tafseer, lies which Allaah has free Ja’far from.”
[ Minhaaj as-Sunnah al-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Taymiyyah (4/54)]

4-    Imaam Taqi ud-Deen Ibn as-Salaah said in his Fataawa:

وجدت عن الإمام أبي الحسن الواحدي المفسر رحمه الله أنه قال: صنف أبو عبد الرحمن السلمي حقائق التفسير، فإن كان قد اعتقد أن ذلك تفسير فقد كفر.
“I found from Al-Imaam Abu al-Hasan al-Waahidi the Exegete rahimahullah that he said: Abu Abdur Rahmaan as-Sulami has authored Haqaaiq al-Tafseer, if he believes that to be tafseer, then indeed he has disbelieved”
[ Fataawa Ibn as-Salaah (1/196-197)]

5-    Haafidh Ibn al-Jawzee (D. 597) mentioned him in Ad-Du’afa wal Matrokeen and mentioned the saying of Haafidh al-Qattaan (3/52). Also see, Talbees Iblees (P. 203).

6-    Haafidh al-Manaawi said in Faydh ul-Qadeer:

وفيه محمد بن الحسين السلمي الصوفي قال الذهبي قال الخطيب قال لي محمد بن القطان كان يضع للصوفية الأحاديث
“This hadeeth contains Muhammad bin al-Husayn as-Sulami as-Soofi. Dhahabi said that Khateeb said that Muhammad bin al-Qattaan said: ‘He fabricated ahaadeeth for the Soofiyah’”
[4/139]

7-    Allaamah Ibn al-Ajmi al-Halabi has mentioned him in his book “Al-Kashf al-Hatheeth feeman rami bi-Wada’ al-Hadeeth” (a compilation of those narrators who are accused of forging hadeeth) and said:

قال الخطيب: قال لي محمد بن يوسف القطان كان يضع الأحاديث للصوفية وله أربعون حديثا في التصوف رويناها عالية وفيها موضوعات والله أعلم
“Al-Khateeb said that: ‘Muhammad bin Yoosuf al-Qattaan told me that he fabricates ahaadeeth for the Soofiyah’. He has a compilation of 40 ahaadeeth on Soofism, and we have narrated it with Aali chain, and in it are fabricated narrations, Wallaahu a’lam.”
[P. 255]

Those who praised him:

1-    Imaam Khateeb al-Baghdaadi (D. 463) said:

قدر أبي عبد الرحمن عند أهل بلده جليل، ومحله في طائفته كبير، وقد كان مع ذلك صاحب حديث مجودا جمع شيوخا وتراجم وأبوابا، وبنيسابور له دويرة معروفة به يسكنها الصوفية قد دخلتها، وقبره هناك يتبركون بزيارته قد رأيته وزرته
“The honor of Abu Abdur Rahmaan near the people of his land is great, and his status in his group is great, and along with that he was a man of Hadeeth, Mujawwid. He compiled names of Shuyookh, Taraajim, and Abwaab. And in Neesaaboor, he had a meeting place where the Soofiyah dwell. I have entered there, and his grave is present there, people seek blessings by visiting him. I have seen it and visited it.”
[ Taareekh Baghdaad (3/42)]

Note: Imaam Khateeb has not done the tawtheeq of As-Sulami here as many have thought; rather he is only describing his status among the Soofiyah and says that he was a man of hadeeth but that does not necessitate being reliable nor does it prove anything.

2-    Haafidh Abu Ya’la al-Khaleeli (D. 446) said:

ثِقَةٌ، مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ
“He is Thiqah, agreed upon”
[ Al-Irshaad (3/860)]

Note: This tawtheeq is not useful against the explained Jarh.

3-    Imaam Abu Abdullah al-Haakim al-Neesaaboori (D. 405) said:

كثير السماع والطلب متقن فيه من بيت الحديث والزهد والتصوف
 [ Su’aalaat as-Sijzi lil Haakim (1/65)]

Conclusion:

As-Sulami was weak and used to fabricate ahaadeeth for the Soofiyah. He was a chief innovator of his time among the Soofiyah in their various Bid’ahs. He used to participate in and support the gatherings of Singing and dancing which, according to the Muhadditheen, is itself enough to invalidate his testimony and vitiate his Adaalah.

His Books:

Imaam Dhahabi said that the number of his books reaches over one hundred and among them are:

1-    Haqaaiq al-Tafseer (The Realities of Qur’anic Exegeses), concerning which Dhahabi said, I wish he had not written this book.
2-    Tabaqaat al-Soofiyah (The Successive generation of the Soofis)
3-    Zikr al-Niswah al-Muta’abbidaat al-Soofiyyaat (Mentioning the devout Soofi women)
4-    Kitaab al-Futuwwah (The book of Soofi Chivalry)
5-    Kitaab al-Samaa’ (The book on singing/music)
6-    Taareekh Ahl us-Suffah (History of the People of the Bench): The Ahl us-Suffah were a group of poor people who after migration from Makkah could not find a residence in Madeenah so they used to temporarily reside in the Prophet’s mosque. They had nothing to do with the misguided Soofis that came long after them. In this book As-Sulami has tried to compile their names. [For details See P. 59 Chapter 26 Footnote # 36]
7-    Su’aalaat As-Sulami li’d-Daaraqutni
8-    ‘Uyoob al-Nafs (Defects of Self)
9-    Adaab as-Suhbah
10- Adaab as-Soofiyah.
11- Al-Arba'een fi't Tasawwuf (40 Hadeeths on Soofism) [Available in English HERE]

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