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Thursday, February 28, 2013

Ikrimah Mawla Ibn Abbaas




Name:

عكرمة القرشي الهاشمي، أبو عبد الله المدني، مولى عَبْد الله بْن عباس، أصله من البربر من أهل المغرب

Ikrimah al-Qurashi al-Haashmi, Abu Abdullah al-Madani, Mawla Abdullah bin Abbaas, originally from al-Barbar from the people of west

Tabaqah: 3 – From the Middle Level of Taabi’een

Death: 104 H and it is said: After that – in Madeenah

Narrated by: Al-Bukhaari – Muslim – Abu Dawood – Tirmidhi – Nasaa’ee – Ibn Maajah

Teachers: Abdullah bin Abbaas, Jaabir bin Abdullah, Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Taalib, Safwaan bin Umayyah, Abdullah bin Umar bin al-Khattaab, Abdullah bin Amr bin al-Aas, Mu’aawiyah bin Abi Sufyaan, Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri, Abu Qataadah al-Ansaari, Abu Hurayrah as-Sadoosi, and others.

Students: Ibraaheem an-Nakha’ee, Ismaa’eel bin Abi Khaalid, Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaani, Thawr bin Yazeed al-Himsi, Abu al-Sha’tha Jaabir bin Zayd al-Basari, Habeeb bin Abi Thaabit, Hakam bin Utaybah, Hammaad bin Abi Sulemaan, Dawood bin Abi Hind, Salamah bin Kuhayl, Sulemaan al-A’mash, Simaak bin Harb, Aasim al-Ahwal, Aamir ash-Sha’bee, Abdullah bin Tawoos, Abdul Azeez bin Abi Rawwaad, Ataa bin as-Saa’ib, Ataa al-Khurasaani, Amr bin Deenaar al-Makki, Muhammad bin Sireen, Ibn Shihaab az-Zuhri, Makhool ash-Shaami, Moosa bin Uqbah, Hishaam bin Hisaan, Yahya bin Sa’eed al-Ansaari, Yahya bin Abi Katheer al-Yamaami, Yoonus bin Yazeed al-Aylee, Abu Ishaaq as-Sabi’ee, Abu az-Zubayr al-Makki, and others.

Status: Thiqah Thabat Imaam, Master of Tafseer and Hadeeth

Opinions of Ahl ul-Jarh wat Ta’deel:

Those who praised him:

1-    Uthmaan bin Hakeem narrates that: “I was sitting with Abu Umaamah Sahl bin Haneef (radiallah anhu) when Ikrimah arrived. So he said: O Abu Umaamah mention the name of Allaah, did you hear Ibn Abbaas saying, ‘Accept whatever Ikrimah narrates to you from me, for verily he does not lie upon me’ so Abu Umaamah said, ‘Yes’”
[Taareekh Ibn Ma’een, narrated by ad-Dauri: 2/413, Chain Saheeh]

2-    Imaam Amr bin Deenaar said that Jaabir bin Zayd sent some masaail to me that I ask Ikrimah about them, he said: “Ikrimah is the Mawla (freed slave) of Ibn Abbaas; he is an ocean (of knowledge), therefore ask him”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa’d: 2/293-294, Chain Saheeh]

3-    Imaam Sa’eed bin Jubayr said: “If Ikrimah stops narrating his hadeeth to them, people would travel to him”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra: 2/294, Chain Saheeh]

4-    The same was said by Imaam Tawoos.
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra: 2/294, Chain Saheeh]

5-    Imaam Yahya ibn Ma’een narrated from Jareer bin Abdul Hameed from Mu’aawiyah bin Miqsam that he said: “It was said to Sa’eed bin Jubayr: Do you know anyone who is more knowledgeable than you?” He replied: “Yes, Ikrimah”
[Taareekh Ibn Ma’een by ad-Dauri: 3/358]

6-    Imaam Salaam bin Miskeen said: “Ikrimah was the biggest Scholar of Tafseer among all men”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra: 2/294, Chain Saheeh]

7-    Imaam Ikrimah himself said: “When I go out to the market and hear a person speaking with a (good) speech, thus (even) this opens up fifty doors of knowledge for me”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra: 2/294, Chain Saheeh]

8-    Imaam Abu Ishaaq as-Sabi’ee said that: “Ikrimah came and started narrating, while Sa’eed bin Jubayr was also present there, thus he made a knot of 30 (with his fingers) and said, he narrated the hadeeth correctly”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra: 2/294, Chain Saheeh]

9-    Imaam Ikrimah said: “Ibn Abbaas (was so strict about my education that he) would teach me the Qur’aan and Sunan by tying a chain on my feet”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra: 2/294, Chain Saheeh]

10-          Imaam Hammaad bin Zayd said that a man said to Ayyoob (As-Sakhtiyaani), “O Abu Bakr, has Ikrimah been accused (of lying)” Ayyoob remained silent, then he said: “As for me, then I do not accuse him”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra: 5/221, Chain Saheeh]

Imaam Ayyoob also said: “The Huffaadh of (the hadeeth of) Ibn Abbaas have unanimously consented upon Ikrimah, among them are: Sa’eed bin Jubayr & Ataa bin Abi Ribaah, they would ask him about the hadeeth of Ibn Abbaas”
[Ad-Du’afa al-Kabeer by al-Ukaylee: 3/376, Chain Saheeh]

11-          Imaam Sufyaan ibn Uyaynah said, I heard Ayyoob (as-Sakhtiyaani) saying: “If I were to tell you that Hasan (al-Basari) quit narrating a lot of Tafseer when Ikrimah (the expert of Tafseer) entered upon us in Basrah until he went out of it, then I said the truth”
[Ad-Du’afa al-Kabeer by al-Ukaylee: 3/373, Chain Saheeh]

12-          Imaam Qataadah bin Di’aamah said: “The most knowledgeable of all people about Halaal and Haraam is Hasan (al-Basari), and the most knowledgeable of them in Manaasik is Ataa bin Abi Ribaah, and the most knowledgeable of them in Tafseer is Ikrimah”
[Al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh: 1/702, Chain Saheeh]

13-          Imaam Yahya ibn Ma’een declared him “Thiqah”
[Taareekh Uthmaan ad-Daarimi: 357, 581, & 604]

14-          Imaam Abu al-Hasan al-Ijlee said: “He is Taabi’ee Thiqah and he is from the whatever people accuse him of  Khaarijiyyah”
[Thiqaat by al-Ijlee: 1/339]

15-          Imaam Bukhaari said: “There is no one among our companions except that he would take evidence from Ikrimah”
[Al-Taareekh al-Kabeer by al-Bukhaari: V. 7 T. 218]

Imaam Bukhaari also narrated from him in his Saheeh.

16-          Imaam Tirmidhi authenticated numerous ahaadeeth of Ikrimah in his Sunan.

17-          Imaam Ibn Abi Haatim ar-Raazi asked his father (Abu Haatim) about Ikrimah, so he said: “He is Thiqah” His son asked: “Is evidence taken from him?” He replied: “Yes, when Thiqah people narrate from him, and those who rejected him: Yahya bin Sa’eed al-Ansaari and Maalik then it was only due to his raye (opinion)” It was said to him, how are the clients of Ibn Abbaas? So he said: “They are Kurayb, Sumay’, Shu’bah, Ikrimah and Ikrimah was the most knowledgeable of them” His son asked him about Ikrimah and Sa’eed bin Jubayr as to which one of the two is more knowledgeable of Tafseer? So he replied: “The companions of Ibn Abbaas was children to Ikrimah”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: Vol. 7 T. 32]

18-          Imaam Ibn Adee said: “He is Mustaqeem ul-Hadeeth except if a weak person narrates from him…. The A’immah of Hadeeth do not prevent from narrating from him, and the Authors of Sihaah have entered his hadeeth in their authentic books when a Thiqah person narrates from him….There is nothing wrong in him”
[Al-Kaamil: 2/292]

19-          Imaam Ibn Khuzaymah authenticated his hadeeth in his Saheeh

20-          Imaam Ibn Hibbaan mentioned him in ath-Thiqaat
[5/229]

21-          Imaam Ad-Daaraqutni authenticated his hadeeth saying, “Its chain is Hasan Saheeh”
[Sunan ad-Daaraqutni: H. 2233, 2374, 2380, ]

22-          Imaam al-Haakim authenticated his hadeeth to be on the conditions of al-Bukhaari
[Mustadrak al-Haakim: H. 210, 216…]

At another place, he graded one of his hadeeth saying, “All the narrators of this hadeeth are Thiqaat”
[H. 553]

23-          Imaam Bayhaqi said: “Ikrimah is from the Thiqah Thabat people according to the Majority of A’immah”
[As-Sunan al-Kubra lil Bayhaqi: 8/234]

24-          Imaam Ikrimah and Kuthayyir Azzah (the famous poet of Arabs) died on the same day, so the people of Madeenah said: “The biggest Faqeeh of people and the biggest poet of people died today”
[Al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh: 2/6; Tabaqaat Ibn Sa’d: 5/292]

25-          Imam Dhahabi said: “He has been criticized for his opinion not his memory”
[Meezaan: 3/93]

At another place, he said: “He is Thiqah Thabat”
[Deewaan ad-Du’afa: 1/278]

26-          Haafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani said: “He is Thiqah Thabat, the Scholar of Tafseer, the accusing of lying on him from Ibn Umar is not proven, nor is the Bid’ah (of any kind) is proven from him”
[Taqreeb: 4673]

Those who criticized him:

1-    Abu Khalf Abdullah bin Eesa al-Kharraaz narrated from Yahya al-Bakaa: I heard Ibn Umar saying to Naafi’: “Fear Allaah O Naafi’ and do not lie upon me as Ikrimah lies upon Ibn Abbaas”
[Tahdheeb al-Kamaal: 20/279]

Answer:

This narration is severely weak and Fabricated because:

·        Its original source and full chain of this narration is not known
·        Yahya al-Bakaa is Matrook and severely weak.

2-    Imaam Sa’eed bin al-Musayyab said to his servant: “Do not lie upon me as Ikrimah lies upon Ibn Abbaas”
[Al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh: 2/5, Chain Saheeh]

Answer:

Imaam Sa’eed used to criticize Imaam Ikrimah based on the differences between the two in some fiqhi issues, and in return Imaam Ikrimah also used to criticize Imaam Sa’eed. Therefore, the Jarh of both contemporaries on each other is rejected.

3-    Yazeed bin Abi Ziyaad reported that Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbaas once tied up Ikrimah with a door, when he was asked about the reason, he said: “This filthy person lies upon my father”
[Ad-Du’afa al-Kabeer by al-Ukaylee: 3/373]

Answer:

Its chain contains Yazeed bin Abi Ziyaad who is weak according to the consensus of Muhadditheen.

4-    Yahya bin Sa’eed al-Ansaari said: “He is Kadh-dhaab”
[Ad-Du’afa al-Kabeer of al-Ukaylee: 3/373, Chain Saheeh]

5-    Ibn Sa’d narrated from Muhammad bin Umar al-Waaqidi from an unknown person that he said: “It is thought that he (Ikrimah) held the view of Khawaarij”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra: 5/224]

This chain is severely weak because:

·        Al-Waaqidi is a Liar and Matrook person &
·        The one saying it is unknown

6-    Mus’ab bin Abdullah az-Zubayri said: “Ikrimah held the opinion of Khawaarij”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra: 5/224]

Mus’ab was born in 156 H while Ikrimah died in 104 H, so where did Mus’ab get this from?? Therefore, it is not proven from Imaam Ikrimah that he held the opinion of Khawaarij.

After reading different testimonies, the result that comes out is that Ikrimah was not very strict with the Khawaarij unlike the common Muslims and used to keep relations with them, and since this practice of his was against the practice of common Muslims and they did not like it, that is why he was attributed towards Khaarijiyyah; and this is also possible that he held the same opinion as Khawaarij in some certain issue due to which he became famous with being a Khaariji. Otherwise, he has no relation with this group.

Conclusion:

Imaam Ikrimah was one of the biggest Fuqaha of his time and a highly reliable and truthful person in the field of Hadeeth.

For more Sayings, see: Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb – under the biography of Ikrimah

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