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Wednesday, January 30, 2013

Shahr bin Hawshab, Abu Sa’eed al-Ash’ari




Name:
شهر بن حوشب الأشعرى الشامى الحمصى و يقال الدمشقى أبو سعيد و يقال أبو عبد الله و يقال أبو عبد الرحمن مولى أسماء بنت يزيد

Shahr bin Hawshab al-Ash’ari ash-Shaami al-Himsi, and it is said ad-Dimashqi, Abu Sa’eed; and it is said Abu Abdullah; and it is said Abu Abdur Rahmaan; the client of Asmaa bint Yazeed

Tabaqah: 3 – From the Middle Level of Taabi’een

Death: 112 H

Narrated by: Al-Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad – Muslim – Abu Dawood – Tirmidhi – Nasaa’ee – Ibn Maajah

Teachers: Bilaal al-Mu’adhdhin, Tameem ad-Daari, Thawbaan the servant of Allaah’s Messenger (peace be upon him), Jaabir bin Abdullah al-Ansaari, Jundub bin Abdullah al-Bajali, Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri, Salmaan al-Faarsi, Abdullah bin Abbaas, Abdullah bin Umar bin al-Khattaab, Abdullah bin Amr bin al-Aas, Anbasah bin Abi Sufyaan, Abu Dhar al-Ghifaari, Abu Ubayd the servant of the Prophet (peace be upon him), Abu Maalik al-Ash’ari, Abu Hurayrah, Umm Salamah, Aa’ishah Umm ul-Mu’mineen, Umm Habeebah bint Abi Sufyaan the wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him), Umm ad-Darda, Umm Salamah the wife of the Prophet, and others.

Students: Abaan bin Saalih, Thaabit al-Bunaani, Habeeb bin Abi Thaabit, Al-Hakam bin Utaybah, Dawood bin Abi Hind, Simaak bin Harb, Ataa bin Abi Ribaah, Qataadah bin Di’aamah, Layth bin Abi Sulaym, Hishaam bin Urwah, and others.

Status: Thiqah, Hasan ul-Hadeeth

Opinions of Ahl ul-Jarh wat Ta’deel:

Those who criticized him:

1-    An-Nasaa’ee said: “He is not Strong”
[Kitaab ad-Du’afa wal Matrokeen: P. 194 T. 194]

2-    Ad-Daaraqutni said: “He is not Strong”
[Sunan ad-Daaraqutni: 1/102 H. 353]
Also see, the same article under the heading: “Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam from Shahr bin Hawshab, Point # 1”

3-    Moosa bin Haaroon said: “He is Da’eef”
[Sunan ad-Daaraqutni: 1/104 H. 357, Chain Saheeh]

4-    Ibn Adee said: “Shahr is not strong in hadeeth”
[Al-Kaamil by Ibn Adee: 5/64]

He also said: “He is Da’eef Jiddan”
[Same: 5/1958]

5-    Ibn al-Jawzee: mentioned him in Kitaab ad-Du’afa wal Matrokeen
[2/43]

6-    Al-Ukaylee: mentioned him in Kitaab ad-Du’afa al-Kabeer
[2/91]

7-    Ibn Hibbaan said: “He is among those who narrate Mu’addal & Maqloob narrations from Thiqah & Thabat people”
[Kitaab al-Majroheen: 1/361]

Mu’addal: means to drop two or more narrators from a chain.
Maqloob: means to change a word with another either in the chain or text.

8-    Al-Bayhaqi said: “And he is not Hujjah according to those who have knowledge about hadeeth”
[Kitaab al-Asmaa as-Sifaat: P. 467]

9-    Ibn Hazm said: “Saaqit (flunked)”
[Al-Muhalla: 7/484]

He also said: “He is Da’eef”
[Same: 10/83]

10-          Shu’bah bin al-Hajjaaj &
11-          Mu’aadh al-Anbari

Mu’aadh bin Mu’aadh al-Anbari said: “What would you do with the hadeeth of Shahr? For verily Shu’bah has abandoned the hadeeth of Shahr bin Hawshab”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 4/383, Chain Saheeh]

12-          Yahya bin Sa’eed al-Qattaan: Did not narrate from him
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 4/383, Chain Saheeh]
Also see, the same article: Heading “Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam from Shahr bin Hawshab, Point # 2”

13-          Abdullah bin Awn said: “ Certainly they have criticized him, certainly they have criticized him (i.e. Shahr)”
[Muqaddimah Saheeh Muslim Ma’ Sharh al-Nawawi: 1/92 H. 36, Chain Saheeh]

14-          Ibn al-Mulaqqin said that the Muhadditheen have abandoned him, i.e. they criticized him.
[See, al-Badar al-Muneer: 3/611, 4/182, 7/264]

15-          Ibn Qutaybah ad-Dayanawari  said: “He is Da’eef in hadeeth”
[Al-Ma’aarif by Ibn Qutaybah: 1/154]

16-          Abu Haatim ar-Raazi said: “Shahr bin Hawshab is more beloved to me than Abi Haaroon al-Abdi & Bishr bin Harb, and he is no less than Abu az-Zubayr, evidence is not taken from his hadeeth”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 4/383]
Also see this article: Heading “Abdul Humayd from Shahr bin Hawshab, Point # 3”

17-          Haafidh al-Iraaqi said: “And Shahr is weakened by the Jumhoor”
[Al-Taqiyeed wal Aydhaah: P. 51]

18-          Al-Juzjaani said: “His hadeeth does not resemble the hadeeth of people”
[Ahwaal ur-Rijaal: 141]

He also said: “His hadeeth indicates that one must not be deluded by him and his hadeeth”
[Same: 141]

19-          Ibn al-Qattaan al-Faasi: The summary of Ibn al-Qattaan’s tahqeeq is that Shahr bin Hawshab is Da’eef according to him
[See, Bayaan al-Wahem wal Ayhaam: 3/591, 321]

20-          Sadaqah bin al-Fadl: Abbaas bin Abdul Adheem al-Anbari (Thiqah, Haafidh) said: “Sadaqah bin al-Fadl (Thiqah) came to us, and he would not write (narrations) from Shahr bin Hawshab”
[Taareekh Dimashq by Ibn Asaakir: 25/159, Chain Hasan]

21-          Ibn al-Qayyim said: “The weakness of Shahr bin Hawshab is famous”
[See, Haadi al-Arwaah: P. 194]

22-          Ibraaheem bin Moosa, Burhaan ud-Deen al-Abnaasi said: “Shahr is weakened by Jumhoor”
[A-Shadh al-Fiyaah min Uloom Ibn as-Salaah: 1/114]

23-          Abu Abdullah al-Jurqaani said: “Ismaa’eel (bin Ayyaash), Layth (bin Abi Sulaym) and Shahr (bin Hawshab), all three of them are abandoned because of their weakness and leniency”
[Kitaab al-Abaateel: 2/86]

Note: The reason why people criticized him is as explained by Imaam An-Nadr bin Shumayl that: “They only criticized him because he worked for the Sultaan”
[Sunan at-Tirmidhi: 5/58]

Those who praised him:

After these sayings of weakness, the tawtheeq of Shahr bin Hawshab is proven from the following Scholars:

1-    Abu Zur’ah ar-Raazi said: “There is nothing wrong in him”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 4/383]

2-    Al-Bukhaari said: “Shahr is Hasan ul-Hadeeth”
[Sunan at-Tirmidhi under H. 2697]

3-    At-Tirmidhi: declared his hadeeth to be Hasan
[Sunan at-Tirmidhi: 2539]

And he also: declared his hadeeth to be Saheeh
[Sunan at-Tirmidhi: 2121]

4-    Haafidh Dhahabi: besides the biography of Shahr bin Hawshab in Meezaan al-I’tidaal (2/284), Dhahabi wrote the sign of “Sahha”, and said: “A group has taken evidence from him”

Benefit: The narrator beside whom, Haafidh Dhahabi writes the sign of “Sahha”, it means that the Tawtheeq of that narrator is Raajih according to Imaam Dhahabi.
See, Lisaan al-Meezaan [2/159 T. Haarith bin Muhammad bin Abi Usaamah]

And Dhahabi also said: “He is a Scholar, Katheer ur-Riwaayah, Hasan ul-Hadeeth”
[Al-‘Abar fi Khabar min Ghabar: 1/90]

Also see, Ma’rifat ur-Ruwaat al-Mutakallim Feehi bima La Yojab al-Radd by Dhahabi (158) & Dhikr Asmaa man Takallam Feehi Wahuwa Mawthaq (161), and Talkhees al-Mustadrak [3/387 H. 5467]

5-    Yahya ibn Ma’een said: “And he is Thiqah”
[Taareekh Ibn Ma’een, narrated by ad-Dauri: 2/170 T. 4031]

He also said: “He is Thabat”
[Same: 2/335 T. 5159]

6-    Al-Busayri graded his hadeeth saying. “Its chain is Hasan”
[Zawaaid Ibn Maajah: H 25, 538, 578, 368 etc; Itthaaf al-Khayrah: 1/76 H. 56]

7-    Ya’qoob bin Sufyaan said: “Shahr bin Hawshab; Although (Abdullah) bin Awn said that Shahr has been abandoned, (but) he is (still) Thiqah”
[Kitaab al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh: 2/426]

8-    An-Nawawi said: “Certainly Shahr is not Matrook, rather he is declared Thiqah by Majority or many people from the Kibaar Aimmah al-Salaf”
[Shahr al-Nawawi Ala Muslim: 1/93]

And he also said: “Its chain contains Shahr bin Hawshab, and a group has criticized him, but he is declared Thiqah by numerous people, and they (i.e. Muhadditheen) have clarified that the Jarh drawn on him is not Jaarih (i.e. not reliable), wallahu A’lam”
[Al-Majmoo Shahr al-Muhadhdhab: 1/370]

9-    Muslim: narrated from him in his Saheeh in Mutaabi’aat
[See, Saheeh Muslim: H. 49, 20]

10-          Ibn Katheer authenticated his hadeeth saying, “This chain is Hasan”
[Musnad al-Faarooq by Ibn Katheer: 1/228]

And he also said: “He (i.e. Shahr) is a Scholar, a worshipper, an ascetic”
[Al-Bidaayah wal Nihaayah: 9/316]

11-          Al-Baghawi: declared his hadeeth to be Hasan
[Shahr us-Sunnah: 11/333 H. 2898]

12-          Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi graded a hadeeth of Shahr, saying: “This hadeeth has a connected chain and Saalih narrators”
[Mawdah Awhaam wal Tafreeq: 1/363]

13-          Ahmed bin Hanbal: Harb bin Ismaa’eel said, I asked (Imaam) Ahmed bin Hanbal about Shahr bin Hawshab, so he replied, “His hadeeth is the best” (Harb bin Ismaa’eel) said: “And he declared him Thiqah, and he was a Shaami from the people of Hims”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 4/383, Chain Hasan]

14-          Zaya ud-Deen al-Maqdisi: narrated his hadeeth in al-Mukhtaarah
[Al-Mukhtaarah: 8/324 H. 391, 392]

This proves that Shahr bin Hawshab was Saheeh ul-Hadeeth according to Haafidh Zaya ud-Deen al-Maqdisi

15-          Ibn Khuzaymah: narrated from him in his Saheeh
[Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah: 4/293 H. 2913]

Note: The Jarh of Imaam Ibn Khuzaymah on Shahr is not proven. The narrations of Taareekh Dimashq (25/159) contain Abu at-Tayyab in one of them and Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Ja’far in the other, the tawtheeq and biography of both these is not proven.

16-          Abu Awaanah: narrated from him in his Saheeh
[Al-Mustakhraj Ala Saheeh Muslim: 3/339 H. 5263; 4/61 H. 5865; 4/252 H. 6747]

17-          Abdul Hayy Ibn al-Ammaad al-Hanbali said: “He is Katheer ur-Riwaayah, Hasan ul-Hadeeth, he recited Qur’aan over (Abdullah) ibn Abbaas (radiallah anhu), and he was a Major Scholar”
[Shadhraat adh-Dhahab: 1/119]

18-          Al-Yaafi’ee said: “He is Katheer ur-Riwaayah, Hasan ul-Hadeeth”
[Mir’aat al-Janaan: 1/95]

19-          Ibn Shaaheen: mentioned him in Taareekh Asmaa ath-Thiqaat
[Ath-Thiqaat: 536]

20-          Al-Mu’ammal bin Ahmed said about his hadeeth that: “This hadeeth is of highest level, Hasan ul-Isnaad”
[Fawaaid al-Mu’ammal: 46]

21-          Ya’qoob bin Shaybah said: “He is Thiqah even though some people have criticized Shahr”
[Taareekh Dimashq by Ibn Asaakir: 25/153, Chain Strong]

22-          Al-Mundhiri: declared his hadeeth to be Hasan
[Al-Targheeb wal Tarheeb: 1/556 H. 1142]

23-          Ali ibn al-Madeeni &
24-          Abdur Rahmaan bin Mahdi

Ali ibn al-Madeeni was asked: “Do you like the hadeeth of Shahr bin Hawshab?” so he replied: “I take his ahaadeeth, and I do not abandon taking (ahaadeeth) from anyone except if Yahya (bin Sa’eed al-Qattaan) and Abdur Rahmaan (bin Mahdi) gather upon (his weakness)”
[Taareekh Dimashq: 25/152, Chain Saheeh]

25-          Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “The narrations of Shahr are Hasan”
[Sharh Umdat ul-Fiqh: 1/264]

26-          Mughaltaai bin Qaleej al-Misri al-Hanafi said about one of the hadeeth of Shahr that: “The chain of this hadeeth is Jayyid”
[Shahr Ibn Maajah: 1/282]

27-          Haafidh Ibn Hajar said: “He is Sadooq, Katheer ul-Irsaal wal Awhaam”
[Taqreeb at-Tahdheeb: 2830]

While at another place, he said: “Shahr is Hasan ul-Hadeeth even though there is some weakness in him”
[Fath ul-Baari: 3/65 H. 1190]

At another place, he said: “He is Maqbool according to the Jumhoor”
[Al-Amaali al-Mutlaqah: 1/75]

It seems as if by his saying in Taqreeb, he meant that he makes mistakes but his mistakes do not drop him from the level of Hasan. Otherwise, both his sayings will be rejected because of being contradictory.

Contradictory and Un-Proven Testimonies

Some Scholars have contradicted in Jarh and Ta’deel of Shahr bin Hawshab, whereas, the sayings of some Muhadditheen are not proven from an authentic chain, and some criticizers are themselves criticized. The details are as follows:

1-    Muhammad bin Umar al-Waaqidi said: “He is Da’eef in Hadeeth”
[Tabaqaat Ibn Sa’d: 7/449]

This Waaqidi himself has been declared a Liar and Matrook. Imaam Shaafi’ee said: “The books of Waaqidi are Lie”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 8/21, Chain Saheeh]

2-    Al-Haythami said: “He is Da’eef”
[Majma az-Zawaaid: 5/339]

While he also said: “There is criticism on him, and he is Thiqah in-shaa-Allaah”
[Same: 2/130]

At another place, he said: “His hadeeth is Hasan”
[Same: 4/217]

Both the sayings of Haafidh al-Haythami are rejected because of being contradictory.

3-    As-Suyooti said: “Abu Bakr is Da’eef as is Shahr”
[Al-Ashbaah wal Nadhaair: P. 144]

While at another place, he graded one of his hadeeth saying, “Chain is Hasan”
[Al-Haawi lil Fataawa: 1/356]

Therefore, both the sayings of Suyooti are Saaqit.

Note: The weakness of Abu Ahmed al-Kaamil and as-Saaji was not found anywhere with an authentic chain, wallahu a’lam

The Accusation of Stealing on Shahr bin Hawshab

Some Scholars have also narrated the Jarh of stealing on Shahr bin Hawshab. Those who made this Jarh are as follows:

1-    Abbaad bin Mansoor – See, al-Kaamil by Ibn Adee [5/59]; Kitaab al-Majroheen [1/361]

Abbaad bin Mansoor himself is Da’eef according to the Jumhoor. Imaam Nasaa’ee, Haafidh Dhahabi, Abu Haatim ar-Raazi, and other declared him Da’eef; Yahya ibn Ma’een said he is nothing; and Abu Zur’ah ar-Raazi declared him Layyin. For details, see: Tahdheeb al-Kamaal fi Asmaa ur-Rijaal and Kitaab al-Jarh wat Ta’deel etc.

Imaam an-Nawawi said about this Jarh of stealing that: “It is not accepted according to the Muhaqqiqeen; in fact they refused it, wallahu a’lam”
[Sharh al-Nawawi ala Muslim: 1/93]

2-    Shu’bah bin al-Hajjaaj – Haafidh al-Bayhaqi said: Abu Abdur Rahmaan as-Sulami informed us, Abu Sa’eed al-Khallaal narrated to us, Abu al-Qaasim al-Baghawi narrated to us, Mahmood bin Ghaylaan narrated to us, Shubaabah narrated to us, he said I heard Shu’bah saying…. [See, al-Sunan al-Kubra lil Bayhaqi: 1/66]

This Jarh is Baatil due to two reasons:

First: The central narrator of this chain, Abu Abdur Rahmaan Muhammad bin Husayn as-Sulami is severely weak.

Muhammad bin Yoosuf al-Qattaan al-Neesaaboori said: “Abu Abdur Rahmaan as-Sulami is not reliable….. He used to fabricate ahaadeeth for the Soofiyah”
[Taareekh Baghdaad: 2/248]

Second: I did not find the tawtheeq of Abu Sa’eed al-Khallaal. His tarjumah is mentioned in Taareekh Jarjaan (173) without any Jarh or Ta’deel.

3-    Abdullah bin Awn – Ibn Adee said: “I think Abdaan al-Ahwadhi or someone other than him narrated to us from Bandaar from Mu’aadh bin Mu’aadh from Ibn Awn, he said…”
[See, al-Kaamil: 4/1355]

In its chain, the teacher of Ibn Adee is not clarified. Therefore, he is unknown.

4-    Abu Bukayr – Ibn Adee said: “Muhammad bin Amr bin al-Alaa narrated to us, Amr ibn Ali narrated to us, Yahya bin Abi Bukayr narrated to us, my Father mentioned…”
[See, al-Kaamil: 5/59; Kitaab al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh: 2/98; Siyar A’laam al-Nabula: 4/375]

This narration is Mardood due to two reasons:

First: The conditions of Abu Bukayr are unknown.
Second: There is a disconnection in this chain as said by Adh-Dhahabi in Siyar A’laam al-Nabula [4/375]

5-    Abu Bakr al-Hudhali – Muhammad bin Jareer at-Tabari said: “Ahmed bin Ali narrated to me, he said: Abu Bakr al-Hudhali said…”
[See, Taareekh at-Tabari: 6/538; Taareekh Dimashq: 25/156]

Abu Bakr al-Hudhali himself is Severely Weak and Matrook ul-Hadeeth person. Imaam Yahya ibn Ma’een, Abu Zur’ah, Abu Haatim, An-Nasaa’ee, Al-Bukhaari, ad-Daaraqutni and other have criticized him.

Haafidh Ibn Hajar said: “Matrook ul-Hadeeth”
[Taqreeb: 8002]

Therefore, the Jarh of Abu Bakr al-Hudhali is Mardood.

6-    Ahmed bin Muhammad – Ibn Adee narrated from as-Saaji who narrated from Ahmed bin Muhammad….
[See, al-Kaamil: 4/1355]

I did not find the conditions of Ahmed bin Muhammad among the Shaykh of Zakariyyah as-Saaji, wallahu a’lam.

Conclusion of the Tahqeeq:

The Jarh of stealing on Shahr bin Hawshab by Abbaad bin Mansoor, Shu’bah bin al-Hajjaaj, Abdullah bin Awn, Abu Bukayr, Abu Bakr al-Hudhali and Ahmed bin Muhammad is not proven

Even if it was proven, Haafidh Ibn Katheer said about Shahr bin Hawshab that: “A group of Muta’khireen has declared him Thiqah, and they have praised his worship, deen, and Ijtihaad; and they said that that it is not of any harm for his narration that he took from Bayt ul-Maal (without permission) if this act is authentically proven form him. He was the guardian (of Bayt ul-Maal) and had full right of spending form it”
[Al-Bidaayah wal Nihaayah: 9/316]

The narration of Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam from Shahr bin Hawshab

If Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam narrates from Shahr bin Hawshab then that narration becomes stronger and more reliable. The details are as follows:

1-    Ad-Daaraqutni said: “The Takhreej of the hadeeth of Shahr bin Hawshab is done in whatever Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam narrates from him”
[Su’aalaat al-Barqaani li’d-Daaraqutni: 222]

2-    Yahya bin Sa’eed al-Qattaan said: “Whoever intends (to take) the hadeeth of Shahr then it is necessary for him to hold firm to Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 6/43, Chain Saheeh]

3-    Abu Haatim ar-Raazi said about Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam that: “Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam narrating from Shahr bin Hawshab is similar to Layth bin Sa’d narrating from Sa’eed al-Maqburi… his ahaadeeth from Shahr are Saheeh, I do not know if anyone narrated better narrations from Shahr bin Hawshab than him”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 6/9]

After this Abu Haatim ar-Raazi narrated Jarh on both Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam and Shahr bin Hawshab which is Marjooh because of being against the Jumhoor.

4-    Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali said about Shahr bin Hawshab that: “His matter is differed upon, however the narration of Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam from him is more authentic than the narration of others from his companions”
[Shahr Ilal at-Tirmidhi: 2/777]

Conclusion:

The conclusion of the whole tahqeeq mentioned above is that Shahr bin Hawshab is Thiqah according to the Jumhoor and Hasan ul-Hadeeth; and most of the criticisms narrated on him are un-explained and Mild, as compared to the explained Ta’deel; and if Abdul Humayd bin Bahraam narrates from him then his narration becomes even stronger and more authentic.


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