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Friday, August 2, 2013

The Authentication of a Hadeeth is the Authentication of all its narrators



If a Muhaddith authenticates the chain of a Hadeeth, such as saying: “Isnaaduhu Saheeh (Its chain is Saheeh)” or “Isnaaduhu Hasan (Its chain is Hasan)” etc then this, without any doubt, means that he is authenticating all the narrators of the chain because that is all what the chain comprises of.

If a Muhaddith authenticates a hadeeth saying “Hasan” or “Saheeh” etc, then it may not necessarily mean the authentication of the chain and all the narrators in it as he could have said so based on some other routes of the hadeeth.

But if a Muhaddith says these words i.e. Saheeh and Hasan etc for a Munfarid narration of a narrator – A narration which is Ghareeb or is not narrated through any other route except through that narrator, then it is obvious that he cannot authenticate a hadeeth based on other routes as there does not exist any. Therefore, in this case, the authentication of a Muhaddith means that he is also authenticating the narrators and the chain of the hadeeth.

Similarly, the Muhadditheen who have authored books of As-Saheeh such as Bukhaari, Muslim, Abu Awaanah, Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibbaan and others; if they narrate the hadeeth of a narrator in Usool then that also means that he is authenticating all the narrators of the chain.
[See, Al-Ta’deel al-Dhimni by Khaalid al-Asmari (P. 47)]

The following are some of the proofs for this assertion:

1 -    Imaam Abu Abdullah al-Haakim al-Neesaaboori rahimahullah (D. 405) writes in the Muqaddimah of his book al-Mustadrak:

وأنا أستعين الله على إخراج أحاديث رواتها ثقات قد احتج بمثلها الشيخان رضي الله عنهما ، أو أحدهما ، وهذا شرط لصحيح عند كافة فقهاء أهل الإسلام

“And Allaah has aided me in doing Takhreej of ahaadeeth whose narrators are all Thiqah as the likes of them have been relied upon by the Shaykhayn radiallah anhuma, or one of them (by simply narrating from them in their Saheehayn), and this is the condition for a Saheeh hadeeth according to many Fuqaha of Islaam”
[Muqaddimah al-Mustadrak]

 2 -    Imaam Abu al-Hasan Ibn al-Qattaan al-Faasi al-Maghribi rahimahullah (D. 628) writes about Zaynab bint Ka’b and Sa’d bin Ishaaq:

وَفِي تَصْحِيح التِّرْمِذِيّ إِيَّاه توثيقها وتوثيق سعد بن إِسْحَاق، وَلَا يضر الثِّقَة أَن لَا يروي عَنهُ إِلَّا وَاحِد، وَالله أعلم

“The authentication of Al-Tirmidhi includes her Tawtheeq and the Tawtheeq of Sa’d bin Ishaaq, and it does not harm (the reliability of) a Thiqah person that only one person narrated from him, wallahu a’lam”
[Bayaan al-Wahem wal Ayhaam by Ibn al-Qattaan (5/395)]

At another place, he said:

لم يثبت عدالته، وصحح حديثه ابن المنذر و ابن حزم، وغيرهما، فذلك توثيق له

“His Adaalah is not proven; Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm and others have authenticated his hadeeth, so that is a Tawtheeq for him”
[Meezaan al-I’tidaal (4/558)]

3 -    Imaam Tirmidhi has authenticated the hadeeth of the narrator “Amr bin Bujdaan” declaring it “Hasan Saheeh”, so Imaam Taqi ud-Deen Ibn Daqeeq ul-Eeed rahimahullah (D. 702) said in his book “Al-Imaam” that:

و أي فرق بين أن يقول: هو ثقة أو يصحح له حديث انفرد به؟

“Is there even a difference between saying ‘He is Thiqah’ and authenticating his Munfarid hadeeth?”
[Nasb ur-Raayah by az-Zayla’ee (1/149)]

 In another place, he said (the summary of which is):

أن من طرق معرفة كون الراوي ثقة ، تخريج البخاري ومسلم ، أو أحدهما له ، في الصحيح محتجين به ، ثم عمم عندما قال: "فيستفاد من ذلك جملة كثيرة من الثقات ، إذا كان المخرج قد سمى كتابه الصحيح أو ذكر لفظا يدل على اشتراطه لذلك فلينتبه لذلك

“Among the methods of knowing whether a narrator is Thiqah, is the Takhreej of that narrator by Al-Bukhaari and Muslim or one of them in As-Saheeh taking evidence from him.” Then he said generalizing, "Numerous other Thiqah narrators can also be deduced from this (principle), when the author has named his book 'As-Saheeh' or mentioned a word denoting towards his stipulation for that, thus he should be known for that"
[Al-Iqtraah (P. 55)]

4 -    Haafidh Ibn Abdil Haadi rahimahullah (D. 744) said while refuting the Jarh on a narrator:

وَقَدْ احْتَجَّ - بِحَدِيثِ قَيْسٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ -: النِّسَائِيُّ، وَصَحَّحَهُ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ الْبُسْتِيُّ، وَحَسَّنَهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ

“Indeed Nasaa'ee has taken evidence from the hadeeth of Qays from his Father, and he is also authenticated by Abu Haatim al-Busti, and Tirmidhi has declared his hadeeth to be Hasan”
[At-Ta'leeqaat Ala al-Ilal (1/87)]
 Note: Meaning, compared to the Jarh, he merely relied upon the authentications of Muhadditheen.

      In another place, he said:

إن قيل: قد قال أبو حنيفة: زيد أبي عيَّاش مجهولٌ قلنا: إن كان هو لا يعرفه، فقد عرفه أهل النَّقل، وذكر روايته التِّرمذيُّ وصحَّحها، والحاكم وصحَّحها، وذكره مسلمٌ في كتاب " الكنى " وقال: سمع من سعدٍ، وروى عنه عبد الله بن بزيد. وذكره ابن خزيمة في " رواية العدل عن العدل "، وقال الدَّارَقُطْنِيُّ: هو ثقةٌ.

“If it is said that Abu Haneefah said, Zayd Abu Ayyaash is Majhool. Then we say: If he did not recognize him, then other People of Narration did recognize him and Tirmidhi mentioned his narration and declared it Saheeh, Haakim declared his narration Saheeh, and Muslim mentioned him in Kitaab al-Kunaa and said, 'He heard from Sa'd, from him narrated Abdullah bin Bazeed.' And Ibn Khuzaymah mentioned him (in his Saheeh) under the chapter 'narration of trustworthy from a trustworthy'. And Ad-Daaraqutni said, He is Thiqah”
[Tanqeeh ut-Tahqeeq (4/31)]

5 -    Imaam al-Jarh wat-Ta’deel Shams ud-Deen adh-Dhahabi rahimahullah (D. 748) said:

الثقة: مَن وثَّقَه كثيرٌ، ولم يُضعَّف ودُونَه: مَن لم يُوَثَّق ولا ضُعِّف فإن خُرِّج حديثُ هذا في "الصحيحين"، فهو مُوَثَّق بذلك وإن صَحَّح له مثلُ الترمذيِّ وابنِ خزيمة، فجيِّدٌ أيضاً وإن صَحَّحَ له كالدارقطنيِّ والحاكم، فأقلُّ أحوالهِ: حُسْنُ حديثه

“A Thiqah is one who is declared Thiqah by many Muhadditheen and has not been weakened, the one next to him (in degree) is the one who has neither been declared Thiqah nor weak, thus if his hadeeth is narrated in Saheehayn then he becomes Thiqah due to that, and if his hadeeth is authenticated by the likes of Tirmidhi and Ibn Khuzaymah then he becomes Jayyid as well, and if his hadeeth is authenticated by the likes of Daaraqutni and Haakim then the least of his conditions will be that his hadeeth is Hasan”
[Al-Mawqadhah fi Ilm al-Mustalah by Dhahabi (1/78)]

6 -    Haffidh Abu al-Fadl al-Iraaqi rahimahullah (D. 806) said in the tarjumah of Hajr bin al-Anbasah:

قلت قد وَثَّقَهُ ابْن معِين وَأَبُو حَاتِم بن حبَان وَأَبُو بكر الْخَطِيب وَحسن لَهُ التِّرْمِذِيّ حَدِيث مد الصَّوْت بآمين وَصَححهُ الدَّارَقُطْنِيّ لَا جرم أَن ابْن الْقطَّان لما نقل تَصْحِيح الدَّارَقُطْنِيّ لَهُ قَالَ كَأَنَّهُ عرف من حَال حجر الثِّقَة

“I say: He is declared Thiqah by Ibn Ma'een, Abu Haatim bin Hibbaan, and Abu Bakr al-Khateeb. While Tirmidhi has declared his hadeeth of raising the voice with Ameen to be Hasan, and Ad-Daaraqutni declared his hadeeth to be Saheeh. There is no doubt that when Ibn al-Qattaan mentioned the authentication of Ad-Daaraqutni for him. He said, as if he was aware of the condition of Hajr's reliability”
[Zayl Meezaan al-I'tidaal (1/75)]

In another place, he said in the tarjumah of Ismaa'eel bin Abdul Kareem:

ققَالَ ابْن الْقطَّان لَا يعرف وَلم تثبت عَدَالَته قَالَ وَذكره مسلمة بن قَاسم فَقَالَ صنعاني جَائِز الحَدِيث قلت احْتج بِهِ ابْن خُزَيْمَة وَابْن حبَان فِي صَحِيحهمَا وَذكره حبَان فِي الثِّقَات

“Thus Ibn al-Qattaan said, he is not known nor is his Adaalah established. He said, and Maslamah bin Qaasim has mentioned him and Sana'aani said, He is Jaa'iz ul-Hadeeth. I say: Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibbaan have taken evidence from him in their Saheehs, and Ibn Hibbaan mentioned him in Ath-Thiqaat”
[Zayl Meezaan al-I'tidaal (P. 55)]


7 -    Imaam al-Jarh wat Ta’deel Haafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani rahimahullah (D. 852) writes under the biography of Abdur Rahmaan bin Khaalid bin Jabl al-Adwaani:

قلت صحّح بن خُزَيْمَة حَدِيثه وَمُقْتَضَاهُ أَن يكون عِنْده من الثِّقَات

“I say Ibn Khuzaymah has authenticated his hadeeth and it denotes that he is from the Thiqah narrators according to him”
[Ta’jeel al-Munfa’ah by Ibn Hajar (1/793)]

At another place, he said:

وأخرج بن حبان في صحيحه من طريق أبي سلام عنه أحاديث صرح فيها بالتحديث ومقتضاه أنه عنده ثقة
“And Ibn Hibbaan has narrated in his Saheeh from the route of Abu Salaam from him some narrations in which he affirmed his hearing and it denotes that he is Thiqah according to him”
[Ta’jeel al-Munfa’ah (P. 204)]

In another place, he said under the biography of Abdullah bin Utbah bin Abi Sufyaan:

أخرج ابن خزيمة حديثه في صحيحه فهو ثقة عنده
“Ibn Khuzaymah narrated his hadeeth in his Saheeh therefore he is Thiqah according to him”
[Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb (5/272)]

At another place, he said:

وكلام الحاكم يقتضي أنه ثقة عنده فإنه قال عقب حديثه: صحيح الإسناد
“And the speech of al-Haakim denotes that he is Thiqah according to him as he said under his hadeeth: Saheeh ul-Isnaad”
[Lisaan al-Meezaan (5/414)]

At another place, he said under the biography of Abdullah bin Ubayd ad-Daylee:

وأما الراوي عن عديسة فقد أخرج حديثه أيضا الترمذي والنسائي، وقال الترمذي: حسن غريب، وهذا يقتضي أنه عنده صدوق معروف
“As for the narrator narrating from Adeesah then indeed Tirmidhi and Nasaa’ee have narrated his hadeeth, and Al-Tirmidhi said: Hasan Ghareeb and this denotes that he is Sadooq Known according to him”
[Ta’jeel al-Munfa’ah (1/750)]

8 -    Haafidh Ibn al-Mulaqqin rahimahullah (D. 804) said:

وَقَالَ غَيره: فِيهِ جَهَالَة، مَا رَوَى عَنهُ سُوَى ابْن خُنَيْس. وَجزم بِهَذَا الذَّهَبِيّ فِي «الْمُغنِي» فَقَالَ: لَا يعرف لَكِن صحّح الْحَاكِم حَدِيثه - كَمَا ترَى - وَكَذَا ابْن حبَان، وَهُوَ مُؤذن بمعرفته وثقته

“And others said: He contains Jahaalah (i.e. he is Majhool) as no one narrates from him except Ibn Khunays; and Dhahabi has said with affirmative in Al-Mughni saying, ‘He is not known however Al-Haakim has authenticated his hadeeth – as you saw – and likewise is done by Ibn Hibbaan and he (Ibn Hibbaan) is known for his Ma’rifah and Reliability’”
[Al-Badar al-Muneer by Ibn al-Mulaqqin (4/269)]

9 -    The Muhaqqiqeen of Tanqeeh ut-Tahqeeq (Shaykh Saami bin Muhammad bin Jaadallaah & Shaykh Abdul Azeez bin Naasir al-Khabbaani) said:

وأحكام العلماء على الرواة تنقسم إلى قسمين: أحكام صريحة، وأحكام ضمنية، والمقصود بالأحكام الضمنية الأحكام التي تكون غير صريحة ولكنها مضمنة في حكم آخر، فمثلاً عندما يصحح البخاري حديثًا، فهذا يتضمن: ثقة رواة الإسناد، وسماع بعضهم من بعض

“The rulings of Ulama upon the narrators is divided into two categories: (1) Explicit Rulings and (2) Implicit Rulings. The Implicit rulings are the rulings which are not explicit rather they are signaled in another ruling. For example, Bukhaari authenticated a hadeeth. So this ruling implies towards the reliability of the narrators of the chain, and the samaa of some from the others”
[Muqaddimah Tanqeeh ut-Tahqeeq (P. 168)]

10 -    Muhaddith ul-Asr Naasir us-Sunnah Imaam Naasir ud-Deen al-Albaani rahimahullah (D. 1420) said:

وكذلك وثقه كل من صحّح حديثه؛ إما بإخراجه إياه في "الصحيح" كمسلم وأبي عوانة؛ أو بالنص على صحته كالترمذي
“And similarly he is also declared Thiqah by all those who authenticated his hadeeth, either through narrating from him in (their books of) al-Saheeh such as Muslim and Abu Awaanah, or through the clear text (indicating) towards his authentication such as Tirmidhi”
[Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah wa Shayi min Fiqhihaa wa Fawaaidihaa by al-Albaani (7/16)]

References from Some Hanafi Ulama


Some Hanafis have tried to object on this obvious and agreed upon Usool which merely requires basic knowledge of Usool al-Hadeeth, but still for those very people, here I present some references of Hanafi Ulama just to satisfy their stubborn hearts.

11 -    Allaamah Jamaal ud-Deen az-Zayla’ee al-Hanafi rahimahullah (D. 762) said about Amr bin Bujdaan:

فَكَذَلِكَ لَا يُوجِبُ جَهَالَةَ الْحَالِ بِانْفِرَادِ رَاوٍ وَاحِدٍ عَنْهُ بَعْدَ وُجُودِ مَا يَقْتَضِي تَعْدِيلَهُ، وَهُوَ تَصْحِيحُ التِّرْمِذِيِّ
“So therefore, the narration of only one narrator from him does not necessitate his Jahaalah al-Haal after the presence of what denotes his Ta’deel and that is the Tasheeh (authentication) of al-Tirmidhi”
[Nasb ur-Raayah by az-Zayla’ee (1/149)]

At another place, Zayla’ee al-Hanafi refuted the Jarh of Bayhaqi on Yahya bin Saleem saying:

وفيه نظر، فإن يحيى بن سليم أخرج له الشيخان، فهو ثقة

“And this is incorrect for verily the Shaykhayn have narrated his narration, therefore he is Thiqah”
[Nasb ur-Raayah (4/270)]

12 -    Allaamah Ibn al-Hammaam al-Hanafi rahimahullah (D. 861) said about a narrator:

تحسين الترمذي للحديث فرع معرفته حاله وعينه

“The Tahseen (authentication) of Tirmidhi for his hadeeth is a type of recognition of his condition and identity”
[Fath ul-Qadeer (2/429)]

13 -    Allaamah Mughaltaa'ee al-Hanafi rahimahullah (D. 762) said while refuting the Jarh of Ibn Hazm on a narrator:

أما قول ابن حزم حين أراد ردّه: حديث جابر رواه أبان بن صالح، وليس بالمشهور، فقول مردود لما أسلفنا من توثيقه عند من صحح حديثه

“As for the saying of Ibn Hazm when he intended to reject him that: 'The hadeeth of Jaabir is narrated from him by Abaan bin Saalih, and he is not famous' then this saying is rejected due to what we have mentioned before from his Tawtheeq according to those who authenticated his hadeeth”
[Sharh Ibn Maajah (1/120)]

In another place, he said:

وأما ما ذكره الخلال في كتاب العلل عن الإِمام أحمد بن حنبل: عاصم لم يسمع غير مكي رواية- أي ليس/بمشهور في الرواية عنه- فمردود، بما أسلفنا ذكره عند من صحح حديثه
[Sharh Ibn Maajah (1/266)]
 In another place, he said:

وهذا حديث إسناده حسن؛ للاختلاف في حال كثير؛ فإنه ممن صحح له الترمذي حديثا
[Sharh Ibn Maajah (1/309)]

In another place, he said:

أمّا قول ابن معين فيه ضعيف فليس يعارض ما أسلفناه من توثيقه عند من صحح حديثه أو حسنه ويكون ضعيفَا بالنسبة إلى غيره من الثقات
[Sharh Ibn Maajah (1/319)]

In another place, he said:

وأعلّه بيحيى بن علي بن خلاد فإنه لا يعرف له حال، وليس فيه مزيد على الإِسناد انتهى كلامه وفيه نظر لما أسلفنا ذكره عند من صححّ حديثه، وذلك لا يكون إلَّا بعد معرفة حاله خصوصًا ابن حبان فإنه ذكره في كتاب الثقات
[Sharh Ibn Maajah (1/365)]

 In another place, he said:

وذكره ابن حبان في الثقات مع تقدّم من صحح حديثه، فزالت عنه الجهالة- واللَّه أعلم
[Sharh Ibn Maajah (1/380)]

14 -    Allaamah Badr ud-Deen Aynee al-Hanafi rahimahullah (D. 855) said about a hadeeth:

والحديث: أخرجه ابن ماجه، وابن خزيمة، والبَيْهقي، ثم العجبُ من البيهقي صحح هذا الحديث، وفيه ابن إسحاق، فقال: إذا ذكر سماعَه وكان الراوي ثقةً استقام الإسناد، وقال في " باب تحريم قتل ما له روحٌ ": الحُفاظ يتوقون ما يَنفردُ به ابن إسحاق، والحالُ أنه قد تفرد به هاهنا فكيف يكون هذا الإسناد صحيحاً؟
[Sharh Abi Dawood (4/396)]

In another place, he said:

قال ابن حزم: مجهول. قلت: ليس كذلك، فإن ابن حبان ذكره فى الثقات، وصحح الحاكم حديثه

“Ibn Hazm said: He is Majhool. I say: It is not like that for indeed Ibn Hibbaan has mentioned him in Ath-Thiqaat, and Haakim authenticated his hadeeth”
[Maghaani al-Akhyaar (1/59)]
15 -    Allaamah Mulla Ali Qaari al-Hanafi rahimahullah (D. 1014) said:

أَنه قد صحّح حَدِيث مُوسَى ابْن خُزَيْمَة، وَابْن حبَان وَالْحَاكِم وَقَالَ: إِنَّه على شَرط مُسلم. وَقَالَ التِّرْمِذِيّ: إِنَّه حسن صَحِيح. قلت: لَعَلَّهُم غفلوا عَن شذوذ الْمَتْن ونظروا إِلَى الْإِسْنَاد فَقَط فحكموا عَلَيْهِ بِمَا حكمُوا

“Indeed the hadeeth of Moosa is authenticated by Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibbaan, and al-Haakim, and he said: It is upon the conditions of Muslim. And Tirmidhi said: It is Hasan Saheeh. I say: Perhaps they neglected the oddness of the text and they only looked into its chain due to which they ruled it the way they did.”
[Sharh al-Nukhbah (P. 334)]

16 -    Allaamah Ibn al-Turkamaani al-Hanafi rahimahullah (D. 750) refuted the Jarh of Bayhaqi on Ismaa'eel bin Ayyaash and said while relying on the Tasheeh of Tirmidhi:

وقد صحح الترمذي لابن عياش عدة احاديث

“Indeed Tirmidhi has authenticated a number of ahaadeeth of Ibn Ayyaash”
[Al-Johar al-Naqi (9/325)]

In another place, he said:

وفي كتاب المزى توثيقهما فزالت جهالة الحال ايضا ولهذا صحح الترمذي هذا الحديث وحكى عن البخاري تصحيحه وصححه ابن خزيمة وغيره
[Al-Johar al-Naqi (1/4)]

17 -    Allaamah Anwar Shaah Kaashmiree al-Hanafi rahimahullah (D. 1353) said:

إن بقيةَ مدلس، والبخاري صحح روايته في مواقيت الصلاة ذكره في التلخيص فإذا صرح بالسماع تقبل روايته

“Indeed Baqiyyah is a Mudallis, and Bukhaari has authenticated his narration in (Chapter) Times of Salaat. (Ibn Hajar) mentioned it in Al-Talkhees. therefore, when he affirms his samaa', his narration will be accepted”
[Al-Urf ash-Shazi (1/153)]

18 -    Allaamah Zafar Ahmed Uthmaani Al-Deobandi al-Hanafi rahimahullah (D. 1394) has numerous examples in his book "I'laa us-Sunan" where he declared narrators to be reliable based on the Tasheeh of Muhadditheen. In fact, he has even declared narrators reliable based on some very odd references of Tasheeh such as the Silence of Abu Dawood in Sunan, the Silence of Nasaa'ee in his Sunan, the Silence of Ibn Hajar in Talkhees and many others.

19 -    Dr. Abu al-Hasan Hussain Ahmed al-Deobandi  (A Muqallid who likes for himself to be called a Scholar when he is not, and he praises himself! He holds high esteem among some Hanafi Muqallideen). In his book on the topic of Taraaweeh in refutation of Brothers Abu Hibbaan and Abu Khuzaymah, he writes concerning the narrator "Abu Taahir al-Faqeeh":

“Haafidh Dhahabi in his Siyar A'laam an-Nabula has given a hadeeth via an Isnaad containing Abu Taahir going back to Ibn Umar (ra), and Al-Dhahabi said: 'This hadeeth has a Saheeh Isnaad.' For al-Dhahabi to say this indicates that he held Abu Taahir to be Thiqah in Hadeeth”
["Answering the claims that there are no authentic narrations for 20 rak'ats Taraweeh" (P. 108)]

Further on, under the tarjumah of Abu Uthmaan al-Basri, he said:


“The late Hanbali known as Diyaa al-Maqdisi (D. 643) also compiled a work on similar lines to the Mustadrak of al-Haakim known as al-Mukhtaarah. Al-Haakim and al-Maqdisi both attempted to collate narrations that fit the conditions of al-Bukhaari and Muslim but not recorded in the two Saheeh works of the latter Imaams of Hadeeth. In al-Mukhtaarah, there is one narration recorded via the route of Abu Taahir al-Faqeeh from Abu Uthmaan al-Basri as follows....... This indicates that both Diyaa al-Maqdisi and his editor both held Abu Uthmaan al-Basri to be reliable to say the least.”
["Answering the claims that there are no authentic narrations for 20 rak'ats Taraweeh" (P. 113)]

Not only that, this person even went one step ahead and took evidence from the Tahseen of Ibn Hajar for a narration of Abu Uthmaan al-Basri which he was not alone in narrating!! [See, P. 114]

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