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Saturday, July 13, 2013

Urwah bin az-Zubayr bin al-Awwaam



Name:

عُرْوَةُ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ بْنِ الْعَوَّامِ بْنِ خُوَيْلِدِ بْنِ أَسَدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعُزَّى بْنِ قُصَيِّ بْنِ كِلَابٍ القرشى الأسدى ، أبو عبد الله المدنى، وَأُمُّهُ أَسْمَاءُ ابْنَةُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيق

Urwah bin az-Zubayr bin al-Awwaam bin Khuwaylid bin Asad bin Abd al-Uzza bin Qusaa bin Kilaab al-Qurashi al-Asdi, Abu Abdullah al-Madani – His mother is: Asmaa the daughter of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (radiallah anhu), and his Father is: Zubayr bin Al-Awwaam (radiallah anhu) one of the ten promised paradise.

Tabaqah: 3 - From the Middle Level of Taabi'een

Birth: in the early days of the caliphate of Uthmaan (radiallah anhu) – Khaleefah bin Khayyaat said that he was born in 23 H and this is what Imaam Dhahabi has declared a stronger opinion.

Death: 94 H

Narrated by: Al-Bukhaari Muslim Abu Dawood Tirmidhi Nasaa'ee Ibn Maajah

His Siblings: 'Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, al-Mundhir bin al-Zubayr, 'Aasim ibn al-Zubayr, al-Muhaajir ibn al-Zubayr, Khadeejah al-Kubra bint al-Zubayr, Umm ul-Hasan bint al-Zubayr, 'Aisha bint al-Zubayr

His Spouses: Umm Yahya bint al-Hakam bin Abi al-'Aas, Umm Walad, Others

His Children: Hishaam bin 'Urwah, 'Abdullah bin 'Urwah, 'Uthmaan bin 'Urwah bin al-Zubayr, Muhammad bin 'Urwah bin al-Zubayr, Yahya bin 'Urwah bin al-Zubayr, 'Umar, Aswad, 'Ubaydullah, Mus'ab, Umm Yahya, Asma

Teachers: Zubayr ibn al-Awwaam, 'Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, Asma' bint Abi Bakr, 'Aa’ishah bint Abi Bakr, Ali ibn Abi Taalib, Sa'eed bin Zayd, Haakim ibn Hizaam, Zayd ibn Thaabit, 'Abdullah ibn Ja'far, Ibn Abbaas, Ibn Umar, 'Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-'Aas, Usaamah ibn Zayd, Abu Ayyoob al-Ansaari, Abu Hurayrah, al-Hajjaaj bin Maalik al-Aslami, Sufyaan bin 'Abdullah bin Rabee’ah, 'Amr bin al-'Aas, Muhammad Ibn Maslamah, al-Miswar bin Makhramah bin Nawfal, al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah, Naajiyah bin Jundub bin Ka’b, Abu Humayd al-Saa’idi al-Ansaari, Hishaam bin Haakim ibn Hizaam, Abu Hurayrah, Niyaar bin Makram al-Aslami, Busrah bint Safwaan bin Nawfal, Zaynab bint Abi Salamah, 'Umar bin Abi Salamah, Umm Haani bint Abi Taalib, Umm Habeebah bint Abi Sufyaan, Jaabir ibn 'Abdullah, Al-Nu’maan bin Basheer ibn Sa'd, 'Ubaydullah bin 'Adee bin al-Khiyaar, Marwaan bin al-Hakam bin Abi al-'Aas, Basheer bin Abi Mas’ood, Humraan bin Abaan, 'Abdullah b. Zam’ah, 'Abdur Rahmaan bin 'Abd al-Qaari, Naafi' bin Jubayr bin Mut’am, Abu Muraawih al-Ghifaari, Abu Salamah bin 'Abdur Rahmaan, and several others

Students: Hisham bin 'Urwah, 'Abdullah bin 'Urwah, 'Uthmaan bin 'Urwah bin al-Zubayr, Muhammad bin 'Urwah bin al-Zubayr, Yahya bin 'Urwah bin al-Zubayr, 'Umar bin 'Abdullah, Muhammad bin Ja'far bin al-Zubayr, Habeeb bin Abi Thaabit, Sa’d bin Ibraaheem bin Abdur Rahmaan bin Awf, Sulemaan bin Yasaar, Saalih bin Kaysaan, Abu az-Zinaad Abdullah bin Zakwaan, Ibn Abi Mulaykah, Ataa bin Abi Ribaah, Ataa bin Abi Muslim al-Khurasaani, Umar bin Abdul Azeez, Amr bin Deenaar, Muhammad bin Ibraaheem bin al-Haarith at-Taymee, Ibn Shihaab az-Zuhri, Wahb bin Kaysaan, Yazeed bin Abi Katheer, and many others

Status: Thiqah Imaam – one of the seven great Fuqaha of Madeenah!

Opinions of Ahl ul-Jarh wat Ta’deel:

Those who praised him:

1-    Imaam Sufyaan bin Uyaynah said:

كان أعلم الناس بحديث عائشة ثلاثة القاسم بن محمد وعروة بن الزبير وعمرة بنت عبد الرحمن
“Three are the most know knowledgeable of all people concerning the Hadeeth of (Sayyidah) Aa’ishah (radiallah anha): (1) Al-Qaasim bin Muhammad, (2) Urwah bin az-Zubayr, (3) and Amrah bint Abdur Rahmaan”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (6/396), Chain Saheeh]

2-    Imaam Muhammad bin Ismaa’eel al-Bukhaari (D. 256) narrated more than 600 narrations from him in his Saheeh (including repetitions)

3-    Imaam Muslim bin al-Hajjaaj al-Neesaaboori (D. 261) narrated more than 300 narrations from him in his Saheeh

4-    Imaam Muhammad bin Sa’d (D. 230) said:

وَكَانَ ثِقَةً كَثِيرَ الْحَدِيثِ فَقِيهًا عَالِيًا مَأْمُونًا ثَبْتًا
“He was Thiqah Katheer ul-Hadeeth, Faqeeh, Aali, Ma’moon, and Thabat”
[ Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa'd (5/137)]

5-    Imaam Abu al-Hasan al-Ijlee (D. 261) said:

مدني تابعي ثقة
“He was a Madani, a Taabi’ee, and Thiqah”
[ Ath-Thiqaat by al-Ijlee (1/331)]

6-    Imaam Ibn Khuzaymah (D. 311) narrated numerous narrations from him in his Saheeh

7-    Imaam Ibn Hibbaan (D. 354) mentioned him in Ath-Thiqaat (4515) and also narrated a lot of narrations from him in his Saheeh

8-    Imaam Abu Abdullah al-Haakim al-Neesaaboori (D. 405) authenticated the chains of several of his narrations in Al-Mustadrak

9-    Imaam Abu al-Hasan ad-Daaraqutni (D. 385) authenticated his hadeeth saying:

هَذَا إِسْنَادٌ صَحِيحٌ
“This chain is Saheeh”
[ Sunan ad-Daaraqutni (3/175 H. 2335)]

10-          Imaam Abu Bakr al-Bayhaqi (D. 458) authenticated his hadeeth saying:

وَهَذَا إِسْنَادٌ صَحِيحٌ
“And this chain is Saheeh”
[ Al-Asmaa was-Sifaat by Bayhaqi (510)]

11-          Imaam Shams ud-Deen adh-Dhahabi (D. 748) said:

وَكَانَ ثَبْتًا حَافِظًا فَقِيهًا عَالِمًا بِالسِّيرَةِ، وَهُوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ صَنَّفَ الْمَغَازِي
“He was Thabat Haafidh Faqeeh Aalim of Seerah, and he was the first one to author a book on al-Maghaazee”
[ Taareekh al-Islaam by Dhahabi (2/1139)]

12-          Haafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani (D. 852) said:

ثقة فقيه مشهور
“He is the famous Thiqah Faqeeh”
[ Taqreeb at-Tahdheeb by Ibn Hajar (4561)]

Note: Imaam Urwah is unanimously agreed upon to be highly reliable in Hadeeth.

Those who criticized him:

None!

His knowledge and Fiqh:

1-    His student, Imaam Abu az-Zinaad (Taabi’ee) said:

كان فقهاء أهل المدينة أربعة سعيد بن المسيب وعروة بن الزبير وقبيصة بن ذؤيب وعبدالملك بن مروان
“The Fuqaha of Ahl ul-Madeenah are four: Sa’eed bin al-Musayyab, Urwah bin az-Zubayr, Qabeesah bin Zu’wayb, and Abdul Malik bin Marwaan”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (6/395), Chain Saheeh]

2-    Imaam Ibn Shihaab az-Zuhri (Taabi’ee) said:

كنت أطلب العلم من ثلاثة سعيد بن المسيب وكان افقه الناس وعروة بن الزبير وكان بحراً لا تكدره الدلاء....
“I sought knowledge from three people: (1) Sa’eed bin al-Musayyab – and he was the most juristic of people, (2) Urwah bin az-Zubayr – and he was an ocean which was not disturbed by the buckets....
[Al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh by Ya’qoob bin Sufyaan (1/552)]

3-    Abdur Rahmaan bin Humayd bin Abdur Rahmaan said:

دَخَلْتُ مَعَ أَبِي المَسْجِدَ، فَرَأَيْتُ النَّاسَ قَدِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى رَجُلٍ، فَقَالَ أَبِي: انْظُرْ مَنْ هَذَا؟ فَنَظَرْتُ، فَإِذَا هُوَ عُرْوَةُ، فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ، وَتَعَجَّبْتُ. فَقَالَ: يَا بُنَيَّ، لاَ تَعْجَبْ، لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ أَصْحَابَ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ -صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَسْأَلُوْنَهُ
“I once entered into a Masjid with my Father, so I saw people gathering around a person. My Father said: See who it is? So when I did, it was Urwah, thus I informed this to him and expressed amazement. So He said: O Son, do not be amazed for indeed the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) used to ask from him”
[Taareekh Ibn Asaakir (40/254), Taareekh Abu Zur’ah ad-Dimashqi (1/521), Chain Saheeh]

4-    Imaam Dhahabi said:

أَحَدُ الفُقَهَاءِ السَّبْعَةِ
“He is one of the seven (great) Fuqaha”
[Siyar A’laam al-Nabula (4/421)]

His Characteristics and Traits:

1-    Muhammad bin Hilaal said:

رَأَيْتُ عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ لا يُحْفِي شَارِبَهُ جِدًّا. يَأْخُذُ مِنْهُ أَخْذًا حَسَنًا
“I saw Urwah that he would not cut his moustache too much, (rather) he would take a good part of it”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa’d (5/137), Chain Saheeh]

2-    Hishaam bin Urwah said:

مَا سَمِعْتُ أَبِي يَقُولُ فِي شَيْءٍ قَطُّ بِرَأْيِهِ
“I never heard my Father speaking anything from his opinion”
[Al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh (1/550), Chain Saheeh]

3-    Hishaam bin Urwah narrates from his Father that he said:

يَا بَنِيَّ سلوني فلقد تركت حتى كدت أُنْسَى وَإِنِّي لأَسْأَلُ عَنِ الْحَدِيثِ فَيُفْتَحُ حَدِيثُ يَوْمِي
“O my son, ask from me, for indeed I have been left until as if I will be forgotten. When I investigate about an (old) hadeeth, the hadeeth of today gets clear”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa’d (5/137), Chain Saheeh]

4-    Salaam bin Abi Mutee’ narrated from Hishaam that:

أَنَّ أَبَاهُ كَانَ يَغْتَسِلُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ مَرَّةً
“His Father would take bath every single day”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa’d (5/137), Chain Saheeh]

5-    Muhammad bin Amr bin Alqamah said:

كَانَ عُرْوَةُ يُخَضِّبُ قَرِيبًا مِنَ السَّوَادِ فَلا أَدْرِي يَجْعَلُ فِيهِ وَسَمَةً أَمْ لا
“Urwah used to apply a dye of a color resembling close to Black, I do not know whether he would add Wasamah (blue dye) in it or not”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa’d (5/138), Chain Saheeh]

6-    Hammaad bin Zayd narrated from Hishaam bin Urwah that:

أَنَّ أَبَاهُ كَانَ يَسْرُدُ الصَّوْمَ
“His father would frequently observe fasts”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa’d (5/138), Chain Saheeh]

7-    Ali bin al-Mubaarak al-Hunaa’ee narrated from Hishaam bin Urwah that:

أَنَّ أَبَاهُ كَانَ يَصُومُ الدَّهْرَ كُلَّهُ إِلا يَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ وَيَوْمَ النَّحْرِ وَمَاتَ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ
“His father would fast every day except for the day of Fitr and the day of Nahr, and he died while he was fasting”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa’d (5/138), Chain Saheeh]

8-    Abdullah bin Shawzab said:

«كَانَ عُرْوَةُ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ يَقْرَأُ رُبُعَ الْقُرْآنِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ فِي الْمُصْحَفِ وَيَقُومُ بِهِ لَيْلَهُ»
“Urwah bin az-Zubayr used to recite one-fourth of Qur’aan every day from the Mus-haf, and he would stay up at night with it”
[Hilyat al-Awliyaa (2/178), Ath-Thiqaat by Ibn Hibbaan (5/195), Al-Bidaayah wal Nihaayah (9/102), Al-Abar (1/110)]

9-    Imaam Hishaam bin Urwah said:

ما سمعت أحداً من أهل الأهواء يذكر أبي بسوء
“I never heard anyone (even) from the people of innovation talking ill of my father”
[Siyar (4/433) & Taareekh Dimashq (40/277), Chain Hasan – the wording is that of Siyar]

10-          Hishaam bin Urwah said:

أَوْصَانِي أَبِي أَنْ لا تَذَرُوا عَلَيَّ حَنُوطًا
“My Father willed me not to apply perfume on his (dead body)”
[Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa’d (5/139), Chain Saheeh]

His Sayings:

1-    Hishaam bin Urwah said that my Father said:

«إِنَّا كُنَّا أَصَاغِرَ قَوْمٍ، ثُمَّ نحن اليوم كبار، وانكم اليوم أصاغر وَسَتَكُونُونَ كِبَارًا، فَتَعَلَّمُوا الْعِلْمَ تَسُودُوا بِهِ قَوْمَكُمْ ويحتاجوا إليكم»
“Certainly (there was a time when) we were young; today we are Kibaar (elders) and you are young, and one day you will also become Kibaar (elders), so teach knowledge to the people and become leaders so that they can rely on you”
[Al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh by Ya’qoob bin Sufyaan (1/551) & Al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih by al-Khateeb (2/90)]

2-    Imaam Urwah said: “Sometimes an inferior speech can matter much, a small thing can cause disgrace and a small thing can give honor”
[Hilyat al-Awliyaa (2/177), Al-Bidaayah wal Nihaayah (9/104)]

3-    Imaam Urwah said to his son:

إذا رأيتم الرجل يعمل الحسنة فاعلموا أن لها عنده أخوات، وإذا رأيتم الرجل يعمل السيئة فاعلموا أن لها عنده أخوات
“When you see a person doing a good deed then know that he would also have some other (good qualities) of its like, and when you see a person doing a bad deed the know that he would also have some other (bad qualities) of its like”
[Al-Hilyat al-Awliyaa (2/177), Al-Bidaayah wal Nihaayah (9/104)]

4-    Hishaam bin Urwah said that Imaam Urwah used to say to his sons:

يَا بَنِيَّ لاَ يُهْدِيَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ مِنَ الْبُدْنِ شَيْئًا يَسْتَحْيِي أَنْ يُهْدِيَهُ لِكَرِيمِهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ أَكْرَمُ الْكُرَمَاءِ وَأَحَقُّ مَنِ اخْتِيرَ لَهُ
“My sons, let none of you sacrifice any animal which he would be ashamed to sacrifice for a noble woman, for surely Allah is the noblest of noble ones, and the most deserving of those for whom things are chosen
[Muwatta Maalik (856), Hilyat al-Awliyaa (2/177), Chain Saheeh]

5-    Whenever Imaam Urwah bin az-Zubayr would enter into his garden, he would recite this Aayah:

وَلَوْلَا إِذْ دَخَلْتَ جَنَّتَكَ قُلْتَ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ
“And why did you, when you entered your garden, not say, 'What Allah willed [has occurred]; there is no power except in Allah'?” (Al-Kahf 18: 39) – And he would keep reciting it until he came out
[Al-Ma’rifah wal Taareekh (1/305) Chain Saheeh, Al-Muntazim (6/232), Al-Siyar (4/426), Al-Bidaayah wal Nihaayah (9/12)]

Conclusion:

His virtues and Manaaqib are much more than what’s mentioned here. That is why, Imaam Nawawi rightfully said:

التابعى الجليل فقيه المدينة، أحد الفقهاء السبعة فقهاء المدينة.... ومناقبه كثيرة مشهورة، وهو مجمع على جلالته، وعلو مرتبته، ووفور علمه

“He was a mighty Taabi’ee and a Faqeeh of Madeenah; he was one of the seven (great) Fuqaha of Madeenah…. His virtues are too many and famous, and there is a unanimous agreement on his greatness, his elevated rank, and the abundance of his knowledge”

[Tahdheeb al-Asmaa wal Lughaat by Nawawi (1/332)]

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