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Friday, December 13, 2013

Asha’th bin Sawwaar al-Kindi


Name:

أشعث بن سوار، الكندي، النجار، الأفرق، ويقال: الأثرم، الكوفي

Asha’th bin Sawwaar al-Kindi an-Najjaar Al-Afraq, and it is said: Al-Athram, al-Koofi

Tabaqah: 6 - From the contemporaries of Minor Taabi'een

Death: 136 H.

Narrated by: Al-Bukhaari in Adab al-Mufrad – Muslim in Mutaabi’ah – Tirmidhi – Nasaa'ee – Ibn Maajah

Teachers: Hasan al-Basri, Hakam bin Utaybah, Ziyaad bin Feroz, Salamah bin Kuhayl, Aamir bin Sharaaheel ash-Sha’bee, Ikrimah Mawla Ibn Abbaas, Abu Ishaaq as-Sabi’ee, Muhammad bin Sireen, Ibn Shihaab az-Zuhri, Abu az-Zubayr al-Makki, Naafi’ Mawla Ibn Umar, Abu Burdah bin Abi Moosa al-Ash’ari and others.

Students: Jareer bin Abdul Hameed, Hafs bin Ghiyaath, Sufyaan ath-Thawree, Shareek bin Abdullah an-Nakha’ee al-Qaadhi, Shu’bah bin al-Hajjaaj, Abbaad bin al-Awwaam, Abdullah bin al-Ajlah, Abdullah bin Numayr, Eesa bin Yoonus bin Abi Ishaaq as-Sabi’ee, Fudayl bin Iyyaad, Ma’mar bin Raashid, Hushaym bin Bushayr, Yazeed bin Haaroon, and others.

Status: Da’eef, Yu’tabar Bihi

Opinions of Ahl ul-Jarh wat Ta’deel:

Asha’th is declared weak by the Jumhoor. Imaam Nawawi said:

وَقَدْ ضَعَّفَهُ الْأَكْثَرُونَ وَوَثَّقَهُ بَعْضُهُمْ
“And he is weakened by the majority, while some of them have declared him Thiqah”
[Al-Majmoo Sharh al-Muhadhdhab (7/22)]

Those who criticized him:

1-    Imaam Amr bin Ali al-Fallaas (D. 249) said:

كَانَ يَحْيَى, وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ لَا يُحَدِّثَانِ عَنْ أَشْعَثَ بْنِ سَوَّارٍ, قَالَ أَبُو حَفْصٍ: وَرَأَيْتُ عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ يَخُطُّ عَلَى حَدِيثِهِ.
“Yahya (al-Qattaan) and Abdur Rahmaan (bin Mahdi) would not narrate from Asha’th bin Sawwaar.” Abu Hafs (Al-Fallaas) said: “And I saw Abdur Rahmaan crossing over his hadeeth”
[ Ad-Du'afa al-Kabeer by al-Ukaylee (1/31), Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (2/271) Chains Saheeh]

2-    Imaam Muhammad bin Sa’d (D. 230) said:

كان ضعيفا في حديثه
“He was Da’eef in his hadeeth”
[ Tabaqaat al-Kubra by Ibn Sa'd (6/341)]

3-    Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal (D. 241) said:

ضَعِيف الحَدِيث
“Da’eef in Hadeeth”
[ Al-Ilal wa Ma'rifat ur-Rijaal by Ahmed, narrated by Abdullah (1/415, 1/494, 3/84)]

4-    Imaam Abu al-Hasan al-Ijlee (D. 261) said:

ضعيف، يكتب حديثه
“Da’eef, his Hadeeth is written down (for Mutaabi’aat)”
[Ath-Thiqaat by al-Ijlee (1/69)]

5-    Imaam Abu Zur’ah ar-Raazi (D. 264) said:

لين
“Lenient (i.e. Weak)”
[ Al-Jarh wat Ta'deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (2/272)]

6-    Imaam Abu Haatim ar-Raazi (D. 275) said:

وأَشْعَثُ هُوَ أَشْعَث
“And Asha’th is Asha’th”
[ Ilal al-Hadeeth by Ibn Abi Haatim (2/156)]

7-    Imaam Abu Haatim’s son, Imaam Abu Muhammad Abdur Rahmaan bin Abi Haatim ar-Raazi (D. 327) said while explaining the above saying of his father:

يَعْنِي أَنَّهُ ضعيفُ الْحَدِيثِ، وَهُوَ أَشْعَثُ بْنُ سَوَّار
“Meaning, He is Da’eef in Hadeeth, and he is Asha’th bin Sawwaar”
[ Ilal al-Hadeeth by Ibn Abi Haatim (2/156)]

8-    Imaam Ya’qoob bin Sufyaan al-Fasawi (D. 277) said:

وَأَشْعَثُ بْنُ سَوَّارٍ ضَعِيفٌ
“And Asha’th bin Sawwaar is Da’eef”
[ Al-Ma'rifah wal Taareekh by Ya'qoob bin Sufyaan (2/113)]

9-    Imaam Al-Nasaa’ee (D. 303) said:

ضَعِيف كُوفِي
“Da’eef, Koofi”
[ Ad-Du'afa wal Matrokeen by al-Nasaa'ee (1/20)]

10-          Imaam Abu Ja’far al-Ukaylee (D. 322) mentioned him in his book of Du’afa (1/31 T. 13) and did not mention any saying of praise about him; rather he criticized one of his narrations.

11-          Imaam Ibn Hibbaan (D. 354) said:

فَاحش الْخَطَأ كثير الْوَهم
“He commits serious mistakes, and errs a lot”
[ Al-Majroheen by Ibn Hibbaan (1/171)]

12-          Imaam Abu al-Hasan ad-Daaraqutni (D. 385) said:

يعتبر به، وهو أضعفهم، روي عنه شعبة حديثًا واحدًا
“He is relied upon (in Mutaabi’aat), and he is the weakest of them, Shu’bah has narrated from him only one hadeeth”
[ Su’aalaat al-Barqaani (42, 43, 44)]

In another place, he said:

كوفي ضعيف، أبو محمد، متروك
“Koofi, Da’eef, Abu Muhammad, Matrook”
[Ad-Du’afa wal Matrokeen by Daaraqutni (115)]

In as-Sunan, he said:

ضعيف الحديث
“Da’eef in Hadeeth”
[4/27]

13-          Imaam Ibn Adee (D. 365) said:

ولم أجد لأشعث فيما يرويه متنا منكرا إنما فِي الأحايين يخلط فِي الإسناد ويخالف
“I did not find for Asha’th in the narrations that he narrated any Munkar text. (However) He only made errors in the Isnaad sometimes and opposed”
[Al-Kaamil (2/45)]

He also said:

وَفِي بعض ما ذكرته يُخَالِفُونَهُ وَفِي الْجُمْلَةِ يُكْتَبُ حَدِيثُهُ
“And is some of what I mentioned, he has opposed, and in general, his hadeeth is written down (for I’tibaar)”
[Al-Kaamil (2/44)]

14-          Imaam Abu Bakr al-Bayhaqi (D. 458) said:

ليس بالقوي
“He is not strong”
[ Sunan al-Kubra lil Bayhaqi (7/9)]

At another place, he said:

غير بقوي
“Not strong”
[Sunan al-Kubra (7/370)]

At another place, he said:

ضعيف
“Da’eef”
[Sunan al-Kubra (7/475) & Al-Ma’rifah (6/111)]

15-          Imaam Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi (D. 456) said:

هُوَ ضَعِيفٌ
“He is Da’eef”
[ Al-Muhalla (8/384, 9/274, 9/506, 10/176, 11/138, & 12/199)]

16-          Haafidh Ibn al-Mulaqqin (D. 804) said while talking about him and another narrator:

"وَكِلَاهُمَا ضَعِيف، أما أَشْعَث بن سوار فالأكثر عَلَى أَنه غير مرضِي"
“And they both are Da’eef, as for Asha’th bin Sawwaar, then the majority of Scholars say that he is not pleasing”
[ Al-Badar al-Muneer (5/731)]

17-          Haafidh Ibn al-Jawzee (D. 597) mentioned him in Kitaab ad-Du’afa wal Matrokeen (1/125).

18-          Imaam Zakariyyah as-Saaji (D. 307) mentioned him in his book of Du’afa.
[ With reference from Ikmaal Tahdheeb al-Kamaal (2/234)]

19-          Haafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani (D. 852) said:

ضعيف
“Da’eef”
[ Taqreeb (524)]

20-          Allaamah Mughaltaai al-Hanafi (762) said about one of his narrations:

"فيه علتان: الأولى: ضعف ابن سوار"
“It contains two defects; the first is the weakness of Ibn Sawwaar”
[ Sharh Ibn Maajah by Mughaltaai (1/627)]

Those who praised him:

1-    Imaam Shu’bah bin al-Hajjaaj (D. 160) narrated from him; and he does not narrate except from Thiqah according to him.

Contradictory Opinions:

The following sayings are contradictory and thus, neutral.

1-    Imaam Yahya bin Ma’een (D. 233) said:

أَشْعَثُ بْنُ سَوَّارٍ ضَعِيفٌ
“Asha’th bin Sawwaar is Da’eef”
[ Taareekh Ibn Ma’een by Ad-Dauri (4/80), Ad-Du'afa al-Kabeer by al-Ukaylee (1/31), Chain Saheeh]

In another narration, Imaam Yahya bin Ma’een said:

أَشْعَث بْن سوار الأفرق كوفي ثقة
“Asha’th bin Sawwaar al-Afraq Koofi is Thiqah”
[Al-Kaamil by Ibn Adee (2/40), Chain Hasan]

2-    Imaam Shams ud-Deen adh-Dhahabi (D. 748) said:

صدوق لينه أبو زرعة
“He is truthful, Abu Zur’ah has weakened him”
[Al-Kaashif (1/253)]

In another place, he said:

فيه ضعف
“There is some weakness in him”
[ Al-Abar (1/158)]

At another place, he said:

وَهُوَ من الضُّعَفَاء
“And he is among the weak narrators”
[Al-Mughni fi’d Du’afa (1/91)]

At another place, he said:

وَكَانَ أَحَدَ العُلَمَاءِ عَلَى لِيْنٍ فِيْهِ
“He was one of the Scholars, dispite the leniency in him”
[Siyar A’laam al-Nabula (6/376)]

In another place, he mentioned him in “Man Takallam feehi wahuwa Mawthaq” said:

حسن الحديث
“Hasan al-Hadeeth”
[1/48]

In another place, he said:

صالح الحديث، ضعفه جماعة
“Saalih al-Hadeeth, a group has weakened him”
[Deewaan ad-Du’afa (1/39)]


Conclusion:

Asha’th bin Sawwaar is Da’eef in Hadeeth.

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