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Friday, April 5, 2013

Abdur Rahmaan bin Mu’aawiyah, Abu al-Huwayrith


Name:

عبد الرحمن بن معاوية بن الحويرث الأنصارى الزرقى ، أبو الحويرث المدنى ( مشهور بكنيته ، حليف بنى نوفل بن عبد مناف )

Abdur Rahmaan bin Mu’aawiyah bin al-Huwayrith al-Ansaari az-Zuraqi, Abu al-Huwayrith al-Madani (Famous with his Kunya, associated with Banu Nawfal bin Abd Manaaf)

Tabaqah: 6 - From the contemporaries of Minor Taabi'een

Death: 130 and it is said after that

Narrated by: Abu Dawood Ibn Maajah

Teachers: Handhalah bin Qays az-Zuraqi, Muhammad bin Jubayr bin Mut’am, Muhammad bin Ammaar al-Mu’adhdhin, Naafi bin Jubayr bin Mut’am, Al-Nu’maan bin Abi Ayyaash az-Zuraqi, and others.

Students: Ibraaheem bin Muhammad bin Abi Yahya al-Aslami, Az-Zubayr bin Moosa al-Makki, Sufyaan ath-Thawree, Shu’bah bin al-Hajjaaj, Aa’idh bin Yahya, Abdur Rahmaan bin Ishaaq al-Madani, Ma’n bin Eesa, Moosa bin Ya’qoob, Hishaam bin Ammaarah Abu al-Huwayrith al-Nawfali and others.

Status: Sadooq, Hasan ul-Hadeeth

Opinions of Ahl ul-Jarh wat Ta’deel:

Those who criticized him:

1-    Imaam Daar al-Hijrah Maalik bin Anas al-Madani (D. 179) said:

ليس بثقة
“He is not Thiqah”
[ Al-Jarh wat Ta'deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (5/284), Chain Saheeh]

Note: The Jarh of Imaam Maalik is against the Jumhoor, therefore, is not acceptable. This is why Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal has also rejected it. Imaam Abdullah bin Ahmed said about his Father:

فأنكره فقال: لا وقد حدث عنه شعبة.
“Thus he rejected it (i.e. The Jarh of Imaam Maalik) and said: No, in fact Shu’bah has narrated from him”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (5/284), Chain Saheeh]

2-    Imaam Abu Haatim ar-Raazi (D. 275) said:

ليس بقوي يكتب حديثه ولا يحتج به
“He is not strong, write his narrations, and do not take evidence from him”
[ Al-Jarh wat Ta'deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (5/284)]

Note: Firstly, this Jarh is against the Jumhoor. These words of Abu Haatim are not acceptable against the proven Tawtheeq because he is Mutashaddid. He used to say these words frequently even for the Thiqah narrators.

Imaam Dhahabi said:

إِذَا وَثَّقَ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ رَجُلاً فَتَمَسَّكْ بِقَولِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُوَثِّقُ إِلاَّ رَجُلاً صَحِيْحَ الحَدِيْثِ، وَإِذَا لَيَّنَ رَجُلاً، أَوْ قَالَ فِيْهِ: لاَ يُحْتَجُّ بِهِ، فَتَوَقَّفْ حَتَّى تَرَى مَا قَالَ غَيْرُهُ فِيْهِ، فَإِنْ وَثَّقَهُ أَحَدٌ، فَلاَ تَبْنِ عَلَى تَجْرِيْحِ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ، فَإِنَّهُ مُتَعَنِّتٌ فِي الرِّجَالِ ، قَدْ قَالَ فِي طَائِفَةٍ مِنْ رِجَالِ (الصِّحَاحِ): لَيْسَ بِحُجَّةٍ، لَيْسَ بِقَوِيٍّ، أَوْ نَحْو ذَلِكَ.
“When Abu Haatim authenticates a person then hold firm to his saying, for verily he does not authenticate a person except one who is Saheeh ul-Hadeeth; and when he weakens a person or says: ‘Evidence is not taken from him’ then abstain from him until you investigate what others said about him; so if anyone has declared that person Thiqah then do not adopt the criticism of Abu Haatim for verily he is strict about narrators; he has said about a group of reliable narrators that: ‘He is not Hujjah’, ‘He is not strong’, or similar to these”
[Siyar A’laam al-Nabula by Dhahabi (13/260)]

Imaam Zayla’ee al-Hanafi said:

قَوْلُ أَبِي حَاتِمٍ: لَا يُحْتَجُّ بِهِ، غَيْرُ قَادِحٍ أَيْضًا، فَإِنَّهُ لَمْ يَذْكُرْ السَّبَبَ، وَقَدْ تَكَرَّرَتْ هَذِهِ اللَّفْظَةُ مِنْهُ فِي رِجَالٍ كَثِيرِينَ مِنْ أصحاب الثِّقَاتِ الْأَثْبَاتِ مِنْ غَيْرِ بَيَانِ السَّبَبِ، كَخَالِدٍ الْحَذَّاءِ، وَغَيْرِهِ، وَاَللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ.
“The saying of Abu Haatim: ‘Evidence is not taken from him’ is not harmful as well, for verily he does not mention the reason; he has repeated used this phrase for numerous reliable and established narrators without mentioning the reason such as Khaalid al-Khada and others, wallahu a’lam”
[Nasb ur-Raayah by Zayla’ee (2/439)]

3-    Imaam Al-Nasaa’ee (D. 303) said: “He is not Thiqah”
[ Ad-Du'afa wal Matrokeen by al-Nasaa'ee (P. 68)]

Note: Imaam Nasaa’ee is also among the Mutashaddideen (Strict ones), and his Jarh is against the Jumhoor as well, therefore, unacceptable.

4-    Imaam Abu Ahmed bin Adee al-Jarjaani (D. 365) said: “And this Abu al-Huwayrith does not have many narrations; and Maalik (bin Anas) was more knowledgeable about him as he was a Madani (too) and he did not narrate anything from him”
[ Al-Kaamil by Ibn Adee (5/502)]

Note: Imaam Ibn Adee bases his Jarh on the Jarh of Imaam Maalik. He could not find many narrations of this narrator. Therefore, this is not his personal ruling, and is therefore, unacceptable.

5-    Imaam Ibn Abdil Barr al-Andalusi (D. 463) said: “He is not strong according to them”
[ Al-Istaghnaa fi Asmaa al-Ma’roofeen bil Kunaa by Ibn Abdil Barr (25)]

6-    Imaam Abu Ja’far al-Ukaylee (D. 322) mentioned him in his book of weak narrators.
[ Ad-Du'afa al-Kabeer by al-Ukaylee (2/344)]

Note: The reference of Imaam Al-Ukaylee is nothing as he did not mention his own ruling on the narrator after mentioning him in ad-Du’afa; rather he narrated Jarh and Tawtheeq both type of sayings about him.

In fact, if the authors of Du’afa mention a narrator in their Du’afa, it does not necessitate that this narrator is Da’eef according to them, rather the authors of Du’afa also mention Thiqah narrators in their Du’afa to explain that they have also been criticized. Therefore, these kinds of references are not acceptable against the proven tawtheeq.

7-    Haafidh Ibn al-Jawzee (D. 597) mentioned him in his book of weak narrators.
[ Ad-Du'afa wal Matrokeen by Ibn al-Jawzee (2/100)]

Note: The reference of Haafidh Ibn al-Jawzee is also of the similar type as mentioned above

8-    Imaam Shams ud-Deen adh-Dhahabi (D. 748) said: “Du’f”
[ Al-Kaashif by Dhahabi (3316)]

Note: Imaam Dhahabi has mentioned this weakness with the expression of Tamreedh. If he mentions Tawtheeq or Tad’eef in al-Kaashif with Seeghah Tamreedh then this is an indication that the Tawtheeq or Tad’eef is not reliable here.

Therefore, Shaykh Al-Albaani said at one place:

ولذلك أشار الذهبي في " الكاشف " إلى أن التوثيق المذكور غير موثوق به، فقال : " وثق "
“And that is why Dhahabi has pointed out in al-Kaashif that this Tawtheeq is not reliable because he said: ‘He has been authenticated’ (with passive voice)”
[Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da’eefah wal Mawdoo’ah (3/377)]

Same is the issue with Tad’eef in passive voice.

9-    Haafidh Ibn al-Mulaqqin (D. 804) said while grading a hadeeth: “Its chain contains two weak narrators: one of them is Abu al-Huwayrith…”
[ Al-Badar al-Muneer by Ibn al-Mulaqqin (2/8)]

10-          Haafidh Noor ud-Deen al-Haythami (D. 807) said: “And the majority is upon declaring him weak”
[ Majma az-Zawaaid by Al-Haythami (1/12)]

Note: Ibn al-Mulaqqin and Al-Haythami both are Naaqil not Naaqid. In case of contradiction between Jarh and Ta’deel, it should always be kept in mind that only the saying of a Naaqid can be presented against another Naaqid and not that of Naaqil.

Similarly, it should also be kept in mind that the saying of Mutaqaddimeen is preferable over the saying of Muta’khireen.

Similarly, the Jarh of Mutashaddideen is weak against the Mu’tadal Mawthaqeen and the tawtheeq of Mutashaddideen.

11-          Haafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani (D. 852) said: “Sadooq, Sa’ee ul-Hifdh”
[ Taqreeb at-Tahdheeb by Ibn Hajar (1/591)]

To summarize:

·        Imaam Maalik’s tad’eef is refuted by Imaam Ahmed.
·        Imaam Abu Haatim and Imaam Nasaa’ee are both Mutashaddideen.
·        Imaam Ibn Adee does not mention his own ruling, rather he only trusted the Jarh of Imaam Maalik.
·        Imaam Dhahabi mentions the Jarh in passive form which is an indication towards its weakness.
·        Haafidh Ibn al-Mulaqqin and Haafidh al-Haythami are only Naaqileen not Naaqideen.
·        Mentioning someone in Ad-Du’afa does not necessitate the narrator’s weakness by the author. However, it can be presented as a support in certain cases.

Those who praised him:

1-    Ameer ul-Mu'mineen fil Hadeeth, Imaam   Shu’bah bin al-Hajjaaj (D. 160) narrated from Abu al-Huwayrith
[ Al-Jarh wat Ta'deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (5/284)]

And Imaam Shu’bah only used to narrate from those who are Thiqah according to him. Thus, Imaam Dhahabi said: “Shuyookh of Shu’bah are Jayyaad (strong)” [Meezaan al-I’tidaal: 4504] etc.

2-    Imaam Yahya bin Ma’een (D. 233) said: “He is Thiqah” as narrated from three different students of Ibn Ma’een
[See, Al-Kaamil by Ibn Adee (5/502) Chain Saheeh, Taareekh Ibn Abi Khaythamah (4/270), Taareekh Ibn Ma'een, narrated by ad-Daarimi (P. 168)]

Contrary to these three students, only Abbaas ad-Dauri has narrated Jarh about him from Imaam Ibn Ma’een, where he said: “Evidence is not taken from his hadeeth”
[Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel (5/284)]

This Jarh is reconcilable and the Tawtheeq of Imaam Ibn Ma’een is given preference.

3-    Imaam al-Jarh wat Ta'deel Ali bin Abdullah al-Madeeni (D. 234) said: “He is Thiqah according to us; Ath-Thawree, Shu’bah and Sufyaan bin Uyaynah have narrated from him”
[ Su'aalaat Ibn Abi Shaybah Li-Ibn al-Madeeni (P. 92)]

4-    Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal (D. 241) was asked about the criticism of Imaam Maalik on al-Huwayrith, so he refused it and said: “No, certainly Shu’bah has narrated from him (i.e. which means he is Thiqah)”
[ Al-Jarh wat Ta'deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (5/284) Chain Saheeh, & Ad-Du'afa al-Kabeer by al-Ukaylee (2/344) Chain Saheeh]

5-    Imaam ul-A'immah Ibn Khuzaymah (D. 311) authenticated his hadeeth
[See, Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (2/351 H. 1450)]

6-    Imaam Ibn Hibbaan (D. 354) mentioned him in ath-Thiqaat
[ Ath-Thiqaat by Ibn Hibbaan (5/104)]

7-    Imaam Abu Hafs Umar bin Shaaheen (D. 385) mentioned him in his book of Thiqah narrators
[ Taareekh Asmaa ath-Thiqaat by Ibn Shaaheen (P. 145)]

8-    Imaam Abu Abdullah al-Haakim al-Neesaaboori (D. 405) authenticated his hadeeth.
[See, Al-Mustadrak ala as-Saheehayn by al-Haakim (1/718 H. 1964)]

9-    Imaam Zayaa al-Maqdisi (D. 643) narrated from him in al-Ahaadeeth al-Mukhtaarah
[ Al-Mustakhraj min al-Ahaadeeth al-Mukhtaarah mimma lam yukhrijhu al-Bukhaari wa Muslim fee Saheehihima (3/129 H. 931), and the Muhaqqiq said: Its chain is Hasan]

Conclusion:

In light of this detail, what seems preferable to us is that Abdur Rahmaan bin Mu’aawiyah is Thiqah because Jumhoor has declared him so. This Jumhoor includes the giant A’immah of this field like: Imaam Shu’bah, Imaam Ali ibn al-Madeeni, Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal, and Imaam Yahya bin Ma’een. On contrary to this, only a few people have done Ghayr Mufassir Jarh on this narrator, while some of them are also among the Mutashaddideen. Therefore, the tawtheeq of Kibaar A’immah is raajih.

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