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Friday, November 15, 2013

Fudayl bin Sulemaan an-Numayree, Abu Sulemaan al-Basri


Name:

فضيل بن سليمان النميرى ، أبو سليمان البصرى

Fudayl bin Sulemaan an-Numayree, Abu Sulemaan al-Basri

Tabaqah: 8 - From the middle level of Taba Taabi'een

Death: 183 H

Narrated by: Al-Bukhaari – Muslim – Abu Dawood – Tirmidhi – Nasaa'ee – Ibn Maajah

Teachers: Ibraaheem bin Tahmaan, Abu Maalik al-Ashja’ee, Abu Haazim Salamah bin Deenaar al-A’raj, Abdur Rahmaan bin Ishaaq al-Madani, Muhammad Ajlaan, Muslim bin Abi Maryam, Moosa bin Uqbah, and others.

Students: Abu al-Asha’th Ahmed bin al-Miqdaam al-Ijlee, Bishr bin Yoosuf al-Basri, Hibbaan bin Hilaal, Khaleefah bin Khayyaat, Abu Aasim ad-Dahhaak bin Makhlad, Ali bin al-Madeeni, Amr bin Ali al-Fallaas, Yahya bin Ghaylaan and others.

Status: Sadooq, Hasan ul-Hadeeth

Opinions of Ahl ul-Jarh wat Ta’deel:

Those who criticized him:

1-    Imaam Yahya bin Ma’een (D. 233) said:

ليس بثقة
“He is not Thiqah”
[ Taareekh Ibn Ma'een, narrated by ad-Dauri (4/226)]

At another place, he said:

ليس بشيء
“He is nothing”
[Su’alaat Ibn al-Junayd (1/434)]

2-    Imaam Abu Zur’ah ar-Raazi (D. 264) said:

لين الحديث
“Lenient in Hadeeth”
[ Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (7/73)]

3-    Imaam Abu Haatim ar-Raazi (D. 275) said:

ليس بالقوى يكتب حديثه
“He is not that strong, write his narrations”
[ Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel by Ibn Abi Haatim (7/72-73)]

Note: There is a difference between saying “Laysa Bi-Qawi” and “Laysa Bil-Qawi”. The later only negates the highest level of strength from the narrator; the one whom these words are said for could most likely be Thiqah except that he would not be more Thiqah than others. And as for the words “Laysa bi-Qawi” then this is a negation from the asal of strength and this is an expression of Jarh from the level of Da’eef, as said by Shaykh Ali Hasan al-Halabi.

Similarly, Shaykh al-Muhaddith Zubayr Alee Za’ee (rahimahullah) also said while talking about a narrator that: “If he is not Al-Qawi then that does not mean, he is not Qawi as well, wallahu a’lam”
[Noor ul-Aynayn, new edition (P. 38)]

4-    Imaam Al-Nasaa’ee (D. 303) said:

لَيْسَ بِالْقَوِيّ
“He is not strong”
[ Ad-Du'afa wal Matrokeen by al-Nasaa'ee (1/88 T. 494), & Amal al-Yawm wal Laylah (1/402 H. 622), & Sunan al-Nasaa’ee al-Kubra (6/159 H. 10458)]

Note: See the answer to the Jarh of Imaam Abu Haatim.

5-    Imaam Abu Hafs Umar bin Shaaheen (D. 385) mentioned him in Taareekh Asmaa ad-Du’afa wal Kadh-dhaabeen (1/156) and merely relied on the Jarh of Imaam Ibn Ma’een without mentioning his own opinion.

6-    Haafidh Ibn al-Jawzee (D. 597) mentioned him in Ad-Du’afa (3/9 T. 2725).

Note: Ibn al-Jawzee is extremely strict with narrators. He mentions anyone in his book who is criticized even a little.

7-    Imaam Sharf ud-Deen al-Nawawi (D. 676) said:

فَفِي سَنَدِهَا الْفُضَيْلُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ وَلَيْسَ بِالْقَوِيِّ
“Thus its chain contains Al-Fudayl bin Sulemaan, and he is not strong”
[ Al-Majmoo Sharh al-Muhadhdhab (11/338)]

8-    Ibn Hajar mentions that Imaam Ibn Qaani (D. 351) said:

ضعيف
“Da’eef”
[Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb (2/292)]

9-    Ibn Hajar mentions that Saalih bin Muhammad bin Jazrah (D. 293) said:

منكر الحديث روى عن موسى بن عقبة مناكير
“Munkar ul-Hadeeth, he narrated Munkar narrations from Moosa bin Uqbah”
[Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb (2/292)]

Note: If this Jarh is proven, it is unacceptable because it is against the Jumhoor. And many A’immah including Imaam Bukhaari in his Saheeh have taken his narrations from Moosa bin Uqbah

Note: The criticisms Abu Dawood is not proven due to Abu Ubayd al-Ajurri, wallahu a’lam.

Also note, that most of the people who criticized him are among the Mutashaddideen and they have not mentioned any reason for their Jarh nor are their Jarhs strong.

Those who praised him:

1-    Imaam Muhammad bin Ismaa’eel al-Bukhaari (D. 256) took evidence from him in his Saheeh
[See, Saheeh al-Bukhaari (H. 483, 1535, 1545, 1731, 2338, 2525, 2854, 3152, 3247, 3826, 4307, 4468, 4521, 4936, 5132, 5935, 6414, 6551, 6705, 6849, 7039, 7345, 7357)]

Haafidh Ibn al-Mulaqqin said about Fudayl:

لَكِن احتجَّ بِهِ الشَّيْخَانِ
“But the Shaykhayn (Bukhaari and Muslim) have taken evidence from him”
[Al-Badar al-Muneer (1/397)]

2-    Imaam Muslim bin al-Hajjaaj al-Neesaaboori (D. 261) narrated and took evidence from him in his Saheeh
[See, Saheeh Muslim (H. 1091, 1196, 2065)]

That is why, Imaam Dhahabi said:

ووثقه مسلم
“And Muslim has declared him Thiqah”
[Deewaan ad-Du’afa (1/321)]

3-    Imaam Abu Eesa at-Tirmidhi (D. 279) authenticated several of his narrations and their chains. His words include:

هذا حديث حسن غريب من هذا الوجه
“This hadeeth is Hasan Ghareeb through this route (i.e. chain)”
[ Sunan at-Tirmidhi (H. 1325)]

هذا حديث حسن صحيح غريب من هذا الوجه
“This hadeeth is Hasan Saheeh Ghareeb from this route (i.e. chain)”
[ Sunan at-Tirmidhi (H. 3856)]

هذا حديث حسن صحيح غريب من هذا الوجه
“This hadeeth is Hasan Saheeh Ghareeb from this route (i.e. Chain)”
[ Sunan at-Tirmidhi (H. 3926)]

هذا حديث حسن غريب من هذا الوجه
“This hadeeth is Hasan Ghareeb from this route (i.e. chain)”
[ Sunan at-Tirmidhi (H. 1325)]

4-    Imaam Ibn Khuzaymah (D. 311) took evidence from him in his Saheeh
[See, Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (H. 62, 1875, 2190, 2405, 2735, 3009, & 4/221)]

5-    Imaam Abu Bakr al-Bazzaar (D. 313) said about one of his narrations:

إِسْنَادُهُ حَسَنًا وَمَتْنُهُ غَرِيب
“Its chain is Hasan and its text is Ghareeb”
[ Musnad al-Bazzaar – Al-Baher az-Zakhkhaar (6/273)]

6-    Imaam Ibn Hibbaan (D. 354) mentioned him in Kitaab ath-Thiqaat (7/316 T. 10248) and he also narrated several narrations from him in his Saheeh.

7-    Imaam Abu Awaanah al-Asfaraaini (D. 316) narrated from him in his Saheeh.
[See, Saheeh Abu Awaanah (H. 2228, 2496, 2497, 4827, 5129)]

8-    Imaam Ibn Mandah al-Asbahaani (D. 395) said about one narration of Fudayl:

هذا اسناد صحيح لم يخرجوه
“This chain is Saheeh, they did not narrate it”
[ Al-Eemaan by Ibn Mandah (2/572), single volume version (P. 572-573)]

Under the footnote of this remark, the Muhaqqiq of Kitaab al-Eemaan, Shaykh Ali bin Muhammad bin Naasir al-Faqeehi said:

إسناده صحيح كما قال المصنف، لأن أكثر المضعفين لفضيل من الطبقة المشددة، والله أعلم
“Its chain is Saheeh as the author has said, because most of the people who weakened Fudayl are from the level of Mutashaddid”
[P. 573]

9-    Imaam Abu Abdullah al-Haakim al-Neesaaboori (D. 405) authenticated several of his narrations with the following words:

هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولا أعرف له علة ولم يخرجاه
“This hadeeth is Saheeh upon the conditions of Shaykhayn, and I do not know of any defect for it, and they did not narrate it”
[ Al-Mustadrak Ala as-Saheehayn by al-Haakim (H. 60)]

هذا حديث صحيح وقد احتجا بجميع رواته ولم يخرجاه
“This hadeeth is Saheeh, and all its narrators are relied upon, and they did not narrate it”
[ H. 68]

"صحيح على شرط الشيخين"
“Saheeh upon the conditions of Shaykhayn”
[ H. 82]

هذا حديث صحيح على شرط مسلم ولم يخرجاه
“This hadeeth is Saheeh upon the conditions of Muslim, and they did not narrate it”
[ H. 86]

هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين
“This hadeeth is Saheeh upon the conditions of Shaykhayn”
[ H. 1899]

صحيح الإسناد
“Saheeh chain”
[H. 5708]

هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه
“This hadeeth has Saheeh chain, and they did not narrate it”
[H. 7040]

هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم يخرجاه
“This hadeeth is Saheeh upon the conditions of Shaykhayn, and they did not narrate it”
[H. 7673]

10-          Imaam Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi (D. 456) despite his strictness towards Rijaal, took evidence from him in al-Muhalla (5/284), and in the Muqaddimah he explains that he does not take evidence except from the authentic hadeeth narrated by Thiqaat.

Moreover, Ibn Hazm also narrated from him in Al-Hajjah al-Wadaa’ (1/131 H. 9 & 1/340 H. 374). And in the introduction of this small booklet, he says:

ثُمَّ نُثَنِّي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بِذِكْرِ الْأَحَادِيثِ الْوَارِدَةِ بِكَيْفِيَّةِ مَا ذَكَرْنَاهُ نَحْنُ بِالْأَسَانِيدِ الْمُتَّصِلَةِ الصِّحَاحِ
“Then we commend in-shaa-Allaah with the mention of ahaadeeth narrated in the description of what we mentioned with connected and Saheeh chains”
[ 1/112]

11-          Imaam Abu Nu’aym al-Asbahaani (D. 430) narrated from him in his Saheeh.
[See, Musnad al-Mustakhraj ala Saheeh al-Imaam Muslim (H. 2450, 2747, 2870, 3365, 3424)]

12-          Imaam Zayaa al-Maqdisi (D. 643) authenticated his narrations in Al-Mukhtaarah by narrating from him.
[See, Al-Ahaadeeth al-Mukhtaarah (1/212, 4/37, 4/155, 4/156, & 4/158)]

13-          Haafidh Al-Iraaqi quotes Imaam al-Mundhiri (D. 656) who mentioned the names of Fudayl and Hafs bin Maysarah among those who narrated a certain hadeeth as Marfoo and he said, that Mundhiri said:

وَكُلُّ مَنْ رَفَعَهُ ثِقَةٌ ثَبْتٌ مُحْتَجٌّ بِهِ
“And everyone who narrated it Marfoo’ is Thiqah Thabat relied upon”
[Tarh at-Tathreeb (5/43)]

This proves that according to Imaam Mundhiri, Fudayl is Thiqah Thabat. However, we did not find this in any of Imaam Mundhiri’s books, wallahu a’lam. Al-Iraaqi would most likely have narrated from one of his books as he was the author many books which might not have reached us. Thus the narration from books is Saheeh.

14-          Imaam Shams ud-Deen adh-Dhahabi (D. 748) said:

وحديثه في الكتب الستة، وهو صدوق
“His hadeeth are in the six books, and he is Sadooq”
[ Meezaan al-I’tidaal (3/361)]

Despite mentioning the criticisms of Scholars on Fudayl, Imaam Dhahabi said:

قلت: قد احتج به الجماعة
“I say: a group has taken evidence from him”
[Taareekh al-Islaam (12/331)]

That is why, Imaam al-Jarh wat Ta’deel, Dhahabi also mentioned him in his booklet named “Man Takallam Feehi Wahuwa Mawthaq” (P. 150) and in the Muqaddimah of this book, he said: “The ahaadeeth of these (i.e. narrators mentioned in this book), if they are not at the highest level of Saheeh then they do no as well drop from the level of Hasan…” (P. 27)

15-          Haafidh Ibn Katheer ad-Dimashqi (D. 774) said about one of his narrations:

إسناده حسن، ومتنه غريب
“Its chain is Hasan and its Matn is Ghareeb”
[ Jaami al-Masaaneed by Ibn Katheer (10/399)]

16-          Haafidh Noor ud-Deen al-Haythami (D. 807) said about one of his narrations that:

جَدُّ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُطَرِّفٍ لَمْ أَعْرِفْهُ، وَبَقِيَّةُ رِجَالِهِ ثِقَاتٌ
“I do not know the grandfather of Muhammad bin Mutarrif, and the remaining narrators are Thiqah”
[Majma az-Zawaaid (6/256)]

Note: The remaining narrators include “Fudayl bin Sulemaan” as well.

17-          Haafidh Ibn Hajar narrates from Imaam As-Saaji that he said:

وكان صدوقا وعنده مناكير
“He was Sadooq, and he has some Munkar narrations”
[ Tahdheeb (8/262)]

Note: This is not a Tad’eef. The narrations of such narrators are usually Hasan.

Contradictory Opinions:

1-    Haafidh Abu al-Fadl al-Iraaqi (D. 806) said about Fudayl:

فَقَدْ ضَعَّفَهُ الْجُمْهُورُ
“Indeed he is weakened by the Jumhoor”
[Tarh at-Tathreeb (2/66)]

Note: The opinion of Jumhoor is rather in favor of his Tawtheeq.

On the contrary to this saying, Haafidh al-Iraaqi said at another place while grading one of the hadeeth of Fudayl that:

وَإِسْنَادُهُمَا صَحِيحٌ
“And both their chains are Saheeh”
[Tarh at-Tathreeb (5/43)]

2-    Haafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani said about him:

صدوق له خطأ كثير
“He is truthful, he has numerous mistakes”
[Taqreeb (5427)]

While on the contrary, he authenticated his narration saying:

وهذا إسناد حسن
“This chain is Hasan”
[Talkhees al-Habeer (3/101)]

In another place, he said about his narration:

قلت: هذا إسناد حسن
“I say: This chain is Hasan”
[Mukhtasar Zawaaid Musnad al-Bazzaar (1/416)]

Conclusion:

Fudayl bin Sulemaan is Thiqah Hasan ul-Hadeeth.

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