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Sunday, February 3, 2013

Ikrimah bin Ammaar, Abu Ammaar al-Yamaani




Name:

عكرمة بن عمار العجلي أبو عمار اليمامي

Ikrimah bin Ammaar al-Ijlee Abu Ammaar al-Yamaami

Tabaqah: Five (5) – One of the young taabi’een

Death: 159 H.

Narrated by: Al-Bukhaari Ta’leeqan – Muslim – Abu Dawood – Tirmidhi – Nasaa’ee – Ibn Maajah

Teachers: Al-Harmaas bin Ziyaad, Tawoos, Saalim, Ataa, Yahya bin Abi Katheer, and others.

Students: Yahya al-Qattaan, Ibn Mahdi, Abul Waleed, Sufyaan Thawree, Shu’bah bin al-Hajjaaj, Nadar bin Shameel, Yazeed bin Abdullah bin Yazeed bin Maimoon bin Mihraan, Mu’aadh bin Mu’aadh al-Anbari, and others.

Status: Thiqah Thabat. Da’eef and Mudtarib when narrates from Yahya bin Abi Katheer, and also a Mudallis.

Opinions of Ahl ul-Jarh wat-Ta’deel: 

Those who praised him:

1-    Imaam Bukhaari took narrations from him in his Saheeh for Istish-haad (Support). [Books of Rijaal]

2-    Imaam Muslim authenticated him by taking evidence from him in his Saheeh. [H. 31, 99, 114, 240, 285, 310, 770, 832, 1036, 1057, 1479, 1548, 1754, 1755, 1763, 1777, 1807, 1989, 2021, 2491, 2603, 2747, 2765, 2905, 2993]

3-    Imaam Ali Ibn al-Madeeni was asked about Ikrimah, so he said: “He is Thiqah Thabat according to our Ashaab” [Sawalaat Ibn Abi Shaybah li Ibn al-Madeeni: 1/133]

4-    Imaam Ad-Dauri heard Imaam Yahya ibn Ma’een saying: “Ikrimah bin Ammaar is Thiqah” [Taareekh Ibn Ma’een: 4/123]

Imaam Yahya ibn Ma’een also said: “He is Sadooq, there is nothing wrong in him” [al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 7/11, Chain Saheeh]

5-    Imaam Wakee’ bin al-Jarraah said: “He is Thiqah” [Taareekh Baghdaad: 14/185; Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 1/228, Chain Saheeh]

6-    Imaam Ahmed bin Saalih al-Misri said: “Ikrimah is Thiqah thus take evidence from him and from his saying” [Ath-Thiqaat by Ibn Shaaheen: 1/177, Chain: not known]

·        Imaam Abu Dawood as-Sijistaani is reported to have said that: “Ikrimah is Thiqah… and there is Idtiraab in his ahadeeth from Yahya bin Abi Katheer” [Sawalaat al-Ajurri: 1/378]

Note: The chain of this saying is weak, because Ajurri is not proven to be Thiqah, he is Majhool ul-Haal.

7-    Imaam Abu Haatim ar-Raazi said: “He is Sadooq make mistakes, and commits tadlees, and there many wrong things in his ahadeeth from Yahya bin Abi Katheer” [Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 7/11]

8-    Imaam Daaraqutni narrated a hadeeth narrated by Ikrimah and said: “This Isnaad is Thaabit Saheeh” [Sunan Daaraqutni: 1/191 H. 379]

Moreover, al-Barqaani asked Imaam Daaraqutni about Ikrimah, so he said: “He is Thiqah” [Sawalaat al-Barqaani: 1/56]

9-    Imaam al-Ijlee mentioned him in his book of thiqah narrators and said: “He is Taabi’ee, Thiqah” [Ath-Thiqaat: 1/339]

10-          Imaam Ibn Hibbaan mentioned him in his book of thiqah narrators. [5/233]

Ibn Hibbaan also narrated many narrations from him in his Saheeh.

11-          Imaam Haakim al-Nisaaboori narrated a hadeeth narrated by Ikrimah and said: “Its Isnaad is Saheeh” [Mustadrak al-Haakim: 2/48, 2/578, 2/677, 3/470, 4/516 – Imaam Dhahabi also followed him]

12-          Imaam Abu Ahmed bin Adee al-Jarjaani said: “He is Mustaqeem ul-Hadeeth when a Thiqah narrates from him” [Al-Kaamil by Ibn Adee: 6/486]

13-          Imaam Ibn Shaaheen mentioned him in his book of weak narrators and said: “There is nothing wrong in Ikrimah bin Ammaar, he is Sadooq” [Ath-Thiqaat: 1/177]

14-          Imaam Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Ammaar al-Mawsali said: “Ikrimah bin Ammaar is Thiqah according to them (Muhadditheen), Ibn Mahdi has narrated from him. I did not hear anything except good about him”

He further said:

“Ikrimah bin Ammaar is the Shaikh of Yamaamah, and he is Athbat (more thiqah, Thabat) than Mulaazim bin Amr” [Taareekh Baghdaad: 14/185, Chain Saheeh]

15-          Imaam Abul Hassan Ibn al-Qattaan al-Faasi said: “He is Sadooq Haafidh, except that he had a lot of Wahem (doubts) in his hadeeth from Yahya bin Abi Katheer, as for when he narrates from others then there is nothing wrong in him” [Bayaan al-Wahem wal Ayhaam: 3/144]

16-          Abdur Rahmaan bin Yusuf bin Kharaash said: “Ikrimah bin Ammaar is Sadooq, there is Nakarah in his hadeeth, Shu’bah, Sufyaan, Yahya and Abdur Rahmaan narrated from him” [Taareekh Baghdaad: 14/185, Ibn Kharaash is weak]

17-          Imaam Ibn Sabooni, Jamaal ud-Deen al-Mahmoodi [D, 680 H] said: “Ikrimah bin Ammaar is one of the Thiqah narrators, Muslim bin Hajjaaj has taken evidence from his hadeeth” [Takallimah Ikmaal ul-Ikmaal fi al-Ansaab wal Asmaa wal Alqaab: 1/55]

18-          Imaam Nawawi narrated a hadeeth narrated by Ikrimah and said: “Its Isnaad is Saheeh, it contains Ikrimah bin Ammaar, there is dispute in taking evidence from him, and Muslim has taken evidence from him in his Saheeh” [Khulaasah al-Ahkaam: 2/735]

19-          Haafidh Ibn al-Mulaqqin narrated a hadeeth narrated by Ikrimah and said: “Its chain is Saheeh according to the conditions of Saheeh Muslim” [Badar ul-Muneer: 4/548]

20-          Haafidh Busayri narrated a hadeeth narrated by Ikrimah and said: “All the narrators in its chain are Thiqaat” [Ithaaf al-Khayrah: 2/193]

21-          Muhammad bin Taahir al-Maqdisi said about Ikrimah: “They (Muhadditheen) have done his tawtheeq” [Dhakheerat ul-Huffaadh: 3/1410]

22-          Imaam Dhahabi said: “Ikrimah bin Ammaar is Thiqah except in his narrations from Yahya bin Abi Katheer in which he is Mudtarib” [Al-Kaashif: 2/33]

Imaam Dhahabi also said: “He is Al-Haafidh al-Imaam” [Siyar A’laam al-Nabula: 6/558]

Imaam Dhahabi also mentioned him in his book of those narrators who have been criticized but they are thiqah according to him. [See: Man Takallam feehi Wahuwa Mawthaq: 1/137]

Imaam Dhahabi narrated a hadeeth narrated by Ikrimah and said: “Its chain is Hasan” [Tanqeeh ut-Tahqeeq by Dhahabi: 1/18]

23-          Haafidh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali said: “Ikrimah bin Ammaar is Thiqah, but his ahadeeth from Yahya bin Abi Katheer are specifically Mudtarib, he did not possess a book” [Sharh Illal al-Tirmidhi]

24-          Sabt Ibn al-Ajmi said: “He is Imaam Thiqah” [Al-Kashf al-Hatheeth: 1/192]

25-          Imaam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani said: “He is one of the Imaams” [Lisaan al-Mizaan: 7/308]

He said in Taqreeb [4688] that: “He [Ikrimah] is Sadooq, have things wrong (sometimes – which does not effect his reliability), and there is Idtiraab in his narrations from Yahya bin Abi Katheer, and he did not possess a book”

Haafidh Ibn Hajar narrated a hadeeth narrated by Ikrimah and said: “Its chain is Saheeh” [Al-Diraayah: 1/312]

26-          Allaamah Ibn al-Turkamaani al-Hanafi said: “Imaam Muslim has taken evidence from him, and Imaam Bukhaari has narrated from him in support (Istish-haad, in his Saheeh), Ibn Khuzaymah, and Ibn Hibbaan have took narrations from him in their Saheeh, and Haakim has taken narrations from him in al-Mustadrak. Muhammad bin Uthmaan said that I heard Ali bin al-Madeeni, he was asked about Ikrimah bin Ammaar so he said, ‘He is Thiqah Thabat according to our companions’, and Wakee’ and Ijlee have declared him Thiqah” [al-Johar al-Naqi: 1/134]

·        Abdur Rahmaan al-A’dhami al-Deobandi narrated many of his ahadeeth to be authentic by saying: “Its chain is Hasan” and once he said regarding a hadeeth of Ikrimah that “Its chain is Hasan on the conditions of Muslim” [Ta’leeq of al-A’dhami on Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan]

Those who criticized him:

1-    Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal said: “His ahadeeth from Ayyaas bin Salamah are Saalih, and his ahadeeth from other than him are Mudtarib” [Al-Illal wa Ma’rifat ur-Rijaal: 1/379]

Imaam Ahmed also said: “The narration of Ikrimah bin Ammaar and Ayyoob bin Utbah from Yahya bin Abi Katheer are Da’eef” [Illal al-Hadeeth fi Saheeh Muslim: 1/83, ad-Du’afa al-Kabeer by Ukaylee: 3/378, Chain Saheeh]

2-    Imaam Yahya bin Sa’eed al-Qattaan was asked about the ahadeeth of Ikrimah from Yahya bin Abi Katheer, he weakened them. [Illal al-Hadeeth fi Saheeh Muslim: 1/83]

3-    Imaam Bukhaari said: “He is Mudtarib in the hadeeth of Yahya bin Abi Katheer, and he did not have a book” [Taareekh Baghdaad: 12/272]

4-    Imaam Bayhaqi said: “His memory got deteriorated at the end of his age, and his memory got weak, so (due to that) he narrated things which are not followed” [Sunan al-Kubra: 8/303]

Note: The issue of Ikhtilaat will be discussed at the end.

5-    Imaam Muhammad bin Abi al-Husayn al-Harwi said: “Ikrimah’s hadeeth from Yahya (bin Abi Katheer) is Mudtarib” [Illal al-Hadeeth fi Saheeh Muslim: 1/82]

6-    Imaam Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi said: “Ikrimah is Da’eef” [Al-Muhalla: 6/82]

Ikrimah bin Ammaar and Tadlees

1-   Imaam Abu Haatim said he commits tadlees. [Al-Jarh wat Ta’deel: 5/11]

2-   Haafidh al-‘Alaa’ee mentioned him among the Mudallis narrators. [Al-Mudalliseen: Pg 108]

3-   Haafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani mentioned him among the third level of Mudalliseen. [Tabaqaat ul-Mudalliseen: 3/88]

4-   Haafidh Jalaal ud-Deen as-Suyooti mentioned him among the Mudallis narrators. [Asmaa ul-Mudalliseen: 1/75]

5-   Sabt ibn al-Ajmi mentioned him among the Mudallis narrators. [Al-Tabiyeen al-Asmaa ul-Mudalliseen: 1/43]

6-   Imaam Abu Zur’ah Ibn al-Iraaqi mentioned him among the Mudallis narrators. [Al-Mudalliseen: 1/73]

7-   Al-Khazraji mentioned him among the Mudallis narrators. [Al-Tadlees wal Mudallisoon: 7/87]

Ikrimah bin Ammaar and Ikhtilaat

The Jarh of Ikhtilaat upon Ikrimah from Imaam Bayhaqi is wrong and rejected. The details are as follows:

Imaam Bayhaqi said:

“His memory got deteriorated at the end of his age, and his memory got weak, so (due to that) he narrated things which are not followed” [Sunan al-Kubra: 8/303]

In another place, Imaam Bayhaqi said:

“Al-Bukhaari abandoned him, and he did not take evidence from Ikrimah bin Ammaar in his Saheeh, and he said, ‘He did not have a book thus he is Mudtarib in hadeeth’” [Al-Sunan al-Kubra: 7/140]

If you notice on the last saying of Imaam Bayhaqi, here, Imaam Bayhaqi is narrating from Imaam Bukhaari that:

“He did not have a book thus he had idtiraab in his hadeeth”

Perhaps, from this statement, Imaam Bayhaqi thought that Ikrimah bin Ammaar might have had a book before and he would have been Saheeh ul-Hadeeth then, but later his book got lost or wasted, so when he started narrating without book he got confronted with Idtiraab. That’s why Imaam Bayhaqi said at the end that, his memory got deteriorated at the end.

Well, we do not know where did Imaam Bayhaqi take this Jarh of Imaam Bukhaari regarding Ikrimah from? Because such words of Jarh are not proven from Imaam Bukhaari regarding Ikrimah, In fact the original words of Imaam Bukhaari are different than what Imaam Bayhaqi narrated, and they are:

Khateeb Baghdaadi narrated from Ibn al-Fadal from Ali bin Ibraaheem from Abu Ahmed bin Faaras from al-Bukhaari, who said:

“Ikrimah bin Ammaar, Abu Ammaar al-Ijlee al-Yamaani is Mudtarib in the hadeeth of Yahya bin Abi Katheer, and he did not have a book…” [Taareekh Baghdaad: 12/256, Chain Saheeh]

Notice that here, the words of Imaam Bukhaari are:

“He is Mudtarib in the hadeeth of Yahya bin Abi Katheer, and he did not have a book”

These words clearly prove that Imaam Bukhaari only declared that hadeeth of Ikrimah to be Mudtarib which he narrated from Yahya bin Abi Katheer, and he did not put the accusation of Ikhtilaat upon him at all.

The words with which Imaam Bayhaqi has narrated the Jarh of Imaam Bukhaari is not proven from him. Therefore, If Ikrimah is declared Mukhtalat based on this Jarh of Imaam Bukhaari then it is not correct.

Moreover, even if the above mentioned reason is not the actual reason of why Imaam Bayhaqi declared Ikrimah a Mukhtalat, then still the Jarh of Imaam Bayhaqi is rejected anyway.

Because, before Imaam Bayhaqi, no one among the criticizers of Ikrimah accused him of Ikhtilaat, not even one! Rather all the criticizers have done a specific and restricted Jarh on Ikrimah for a specific reason. In this condition, no Tatbeeq is possible between the restricted criticisms of other Muhadditheen and the criticism of Ikhtilaat from Imaam Bayhaqi. Therefore, the Jarh of Imaam Bayhaqi, against the Jumhoor Muhadditheen, is unworthy.  

Conclusion:

Ikrimah bin Ammaar is Thiqah Thabat except in his narrations from Yahya bin Abi Katheer. And Ikrimah is a Mudallis as well.

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